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Advanced Squad Leader Rulebook Updated and Erraticized

11. CLOSE COMBAT (CC) A11 Close Combat Table

       A11. & A20.

11.1 CC is a form of attack which can occur only during the CCPh [EXC: vs Unarmed units (20.54), Reaction Fire (D7.2), Infantry OVR (4.152), TH-Hero Banzai Charge (G1.423)] between opposing units in the same Location [EXC: CC with units in a pillbox never occurs in the same Location although it does occur between units in the same hex; B30.6]. Units in different terrain features of the same Location (such as foxholes) still engage in CC with each other. There are no TEM or LOS Hindrance modifications to a CC attack DR, nor does PBF/TPBF ever apply to CC. Unlike Fire attacks, CC is usually simultaneous, so both sides attack the other even if one or both is thereby eliminated.

11.11 RESOLUTION: The FP of attacking units is compared to the FP of those enemy units being attacked in order to achieve a ratio of attack-to-defense FP strength called odds. For example, if two 6-2-8 squads combine to attack a 4-6-7 squad the odds are 12-4, which is then rounded down to the nearest corresponding odds ratio printed on the CCT (EX: 7 to 4 would be 3-2; 11 to 2 would be 4-1; 4 to 15 would be 1-4). Once the odds have been determined, a DR is made for each attack. If the Final DR is < the Kill Number listed on the CCT under the applicable odds column, the attacked units are eliminated. A Final DR which equals the Kill Number listed on the CCT is a Partial Kill: one (or more) defending unit suffers Casualty Reduction as determined by Random Selection. A Final DR > the Kill Number has no effect. Normally the black Kill Numbers are used; see Hand-to-Hand CC (J2.31) for use of the red Kill Numbers.



       A11.11 & D6.22

11.12 MECHANICS: The ATTACKER specifies the order in which multiple Locations containing CC situations are to be resolved; each Location's CC for that Player Turn must be completely resolved before resolving CC in another Location. Barring sequential CC, each side in a Location must designate all of its attacks in that Location prior to the resolution of any of them (ATTACKER designating his first). The DEFENDER then designates all of his attacks, after which the ATTACKER resolves all of his previously declared attacks. The DEFENDER then resolves all of his attacks—even if those units have been eliminated, Reduced, or captured. Units may attack any unit or combination of units in the same Location [EXC: SMC; 11.14], so long as no unit attacks or is attacked [EXC: Infantry OVR (4.152) or CC vs/by a vehicle] more than once per CCPh. All units in the hex do not have to be attacked, nor do all units have to make an attack. See also 11.19.

EX: Assume that in the same Location, both players have three squads with a FP of four each, prior to Melee. Each player can choose to divide his combat in any of the following ways:

A.     One big 1-1 attack (12-12) involving all six units, or

B.     Three squads against one at 3-1 (12-4), or

C.     Three separate 1-1 attacks (4-4) against each squad, or

D.     A 2-1 attack (8-4) against one squad and a 1-2 (4-8) against the other two, or

E.     A 2-1 attack (8-4) against one squad and a 1 -1 (4-4) against one of the other two.

11.13 SW: A SW/ordnance counter may not be used in CC. Each Gun/SW counter possessed by a unit eliminated in CC may also be eliminated if the Original colored dr of that CC DR is a 1. The attacker makes a subsequent dr for each Gun/SW possessed by the eliminated unit and if this dr is ≤ the black Kill Number of that CC attack, the Gun/SW of the unit is eliminated also. All other SW of units eliminated or captured in CC remain in the Location unpossessed until Recovered (4.44).

11.14 SMC: Any SMC in CC has an inherent FP attack and defense strength of one. A SMC may attack alone, but if it does, it must also defend alone and if occupying a Location with other friendly Personnel it must announce its solo attack status (although not necessarily the unit it will attack) before the opponent designates his attacks. Any number of SMC may combine with a MMC or other SMC to make a CC attack [EXC: vs vehicles; 11.5] and to defend by adding their inherent FP together, but a SMC must attack with the MMC it is stacked on top of if it is to combine FP with any MMC. The player is free to rearrange his stack in a CC Location so as to change the MMC that ≥ 1 SMC is stacked with, but he must do so prior to both sides' declaration of CC attacks in that Location.  

A SMC defends in CC as part of the group it attacks with by adding its inherent FP to the FP of the MMC stacked beneath it [EXC: A Known SMC may never defend with a concealed unit unless that unit forfeits its concealment so as to defend with the Known SMC, or vice versa]. A CC attack cannot single out one or more SMC to attack unless the SMC(s) attack(s) without an MMC, or they are attempting to withdraw (or conversely, to stand) without an accompanying MMC. Otherwise, the smallest increment which can be the subject of a single CC attack is a single MMC (plus any SMC stacked directly above it).

11.141 LEADER: One leader may direct the CC attack of the unit(s) it defends with (and any other units which join them in a combined CC attack) by applying his leadership DRM to the CC DR, in addition to adding his inherent FP (or increasing the CCV; see 11.5) to the strength of the attack. However, a leader may not use his leadership DRM to modify the CC DR of his own attack if he attacks alone or if any of the units attacking with him are berserk. Units in CC never take LLMC/LLTC.

EX: A German 4-6-7 squad and 8-1 leader are in the same Location with two Russian 4-4-7 squads. The German player attacks both Russians squads at 1-2 (5-8) and can eliminate them both with an Original DR < 5 due to the -1 leadership modifier. If the Original DR is a 5, at least one of the Russian squads is Reduced to a HS. The Russians attack at 3-2 (8-5) and can eliminate both German units with a DR < 6. If the Russian player rolls a 6, the German player must make a Random Selection DR to determine which unit(s) suffers casualty Reduction.

EX: German 5-4-8 and 4-4-7 squads along with 9-2, 8-1, and 7-0 leaders are in the same Location as two Russian 6-2-8 squads. One, two, or three of the leaders could defend with either German squad, or all three could defend together without any MMC, or each separately, etc. Each leader will be stacked with the MMC it defends (and therefore attacks) with. The 9-2 and 7-0 leaders stack with the 5-4-8 (7 FP) while the 8-1 stacks with the 4-4-7 (5 FP). This prevents the two Russian squads from being able to muster 2:1 odds vs the 9-2 stack or 3:1 odds vs the 4-4-7. The 9-2 and 8-1 could each direct separate 1:1 and 1:2 attacks vs a different 6-2-8, but in the end the 9-2 directs one big 1:1 attack by all the Germans vs both Russian squads, which in turn combine to attack all the Germans at 1:1.

       A10.2 & A11.141

11.15 MELEE: If Infantry of both sides remain in the same Location after all initial CC attacks have been resolved at the end of a CCPh, they [EXC: bicyclists, skiers] are considered to be locked in Melee and may not leave that Location or attack except as part of CC.15 Infantry are also held in Melee by enemy Cavalry, cyclists, and non-Abandoned, Stopped, "unbroken" (12.1) vehicles. Place a Melee counter above the stack of units so afflicted [EXC: Any unit which retains its concealment (11.19) is not locked in Melee itself nor can it hold opposing units in Melee. It is free to fire in its next Fire Phase (into the Melee at TPBF; 7.212) or leave the Location in its next MPh/APh. Therefore, a concealed unit may wish to decline its CC attack opportunity in an effort to save its concealment. Upon losing its "?" such a unit in a Melee Location is immediately held in Melee]. Units locked in Melee may not Interdict routing units nor conduct any activity other than CC or Withdrawal from Melee. New units may advance into a Melee Location but must engage in CC (though a concealed unit may elect not to attack in an attempt to retain its concealment). The Melee units may be attacked by non-Melee units during a fire phase (or even the ATTACKER'S MPh in some cases) but all friendly Melee [errata included] and enemy units in the Location must be attacked [EXC: a Sniper attacks a Melee Location without harming friendly units].



       A11.15 & A11.16

       A7.4 & A11.15

       A10.6 & A11.15

       A11.15, D2.3, & D5.6

11.16 BROKEN UNITS: A broken unit in the same Location with an enemy unit may be attacked in CC and is subject to a -2 DRM to the CC DR. Broken units may never attack, but still defend with their full (unbroken side) FP. Broken Infantry in Melee may not rout during the RtPh, but must attempt to Withdraw from Melee (11.2) unless Disrupted or guarding prisoners. Any non-guard broken unit unable to withdraw from Melee is eliminated at the end of that CCPh for Failure to Rout. Broken units may withdraw into any Accessible Location unoccupied by enemy units, but once there normal rout rules apply in any subsequent RtPh.

       A11.15 & A11.16


11.17 STEALTH: A SSR may bestow special powers of Stealth on Good Order troops to reflect their ferocious nature in CC or adeptness at night fighting or ambush. ANZAC, Gurkhas, Elite/1st-Line Finns, Heroes, Commandos, and Partisans are always considered Stealthy unless Lax. See G1.6 for Japanese. Such Good Order troops receive a -1 drm to their Ambush status dr (11.4), Concealment Growth dr (12.122), Searching dr (12.152), and Search Casualties dr (12.154).

11.18 LAX: A SSR may penalize certain units as Lax to reflect their generally unprepared status. All Inexperienced Personnel are considered Lax. A Lax unit must add +1 to its Ambush status dr (11.4), Concealment Growth dr (12.122), Searching dr (12.152), and Search Casualties dr (12.154).

11.19 CONCEALMENT: The FP of an attacking unit is always halved when attacking a concealed Unit in CC. For that reason, it is rarely wise to attack both concealed and unconcealed units in the same CC attack. Even though concealed, a unit in CC must reveal its Strength Factor prior to both sides' declaration of CC attacks in that Location. Dummy units are automatically removed prior to attack designation in CC because they cannot reveal a Strength Factor. A hidden unit must be placed on board beneath a "?" counter at the start of any CCPh in which it is in the same Location as an enemy unit. A unit loses its concealment in the CCPh only if it makes/directs a CC attack [EXC: a successful Ambush; 11.4] or suffers Casualty Reduction.

       A11.19 & B30.6

11.2 WITHDRAWAL FROM MELEE: Any Infantry unit engaged in Melee which is not currently pinned may attempt to Withdraw from Melee [EXC: berserk/Disrupted units may never Withdraw from CC/Melee] by announcing its intention to do so (ATTACKER first) at the start of the CCPh prior to both sides' declaration of CC attacks in that Location. Withdrawing units may not make CC attacks and are subject to a -2 DRM to all CC attacks made against them during that CCPh [EXC: Infiltration (11.22) and Ambush Withdrawal (11.41)]. The Withdrawal DRM is further modified by adding a +1 DRM for every friendly unit in the Melee which is not attempting to withdraw. If the withdrawing unit is a SMC, it may be attacked in CC as a separate target with a defense strength of one unless it is withdrawing with a MMC, in which case it defends in combination with that unit. Units may attack both withdrawing and standing units in the same CC attack, but the Withdrawal DRM (and standing Unit modifications to it) affect only the withdrawing unit. Any withdrawing unit which is not eliminated/reduced/captured in the CCPh successfully withdraws, and if previously concealed retains that "?" provided it withdraws into a non-Open Ground Location (12.14).


       A11.2 & A26.11

       A4.8 & A11.2

11.21 WITHDRAWAL MECHANICS: Any unit withdrawing during the CCPh may carry only ≤ its IPC and must enter an adjacent Location which is Accessible to that Unit under normal APh conditions (even if it requires placement of a CX counter; 4.72). The Location withdrawn to cannot be currently occupied by a Known enemy unit. If a unit withdraws into a concealed enemy's (not Dummy) Location it is eliminated automatically but an enemy unit(s) in that Location (determined by Random Selection) must forfeit its concealment.


       A4.72 & A11.21

11.22 INFILTRATION: The simultaneous nature of CC is momentarily suspended following an Original CC DR of 2/12. Provided it has not already been eliminated/captured/pinned, any Infantry/Cavalry unit which rolls an Original 2 CC DR may withdraw from CC/Melee immediately thereafter in the same CCPh without being attacked, even if it did not eliminate the defenders (see also Field Promotions; 18.12). Any Infantry/Cavalry unit(s) attacked by an Original 12 CC DR may likewise withdraw from CC immediately thereafter, assuming it has not been eliminated by that 12 CC DR. If the option to withdraw is taken, it must be done immediately; the unit cannot wait to make its own attack (if it has not yet done so) or see the outcome of other attacks before leaving. See also Ambush Withdrawal (11.41).



       A11.22 & A20.55

11.3 SEQUENTIAL CC: There are three other instances in which CC is not considered simultaneous; rather it is sequential, in that attacks are resolved in a specific order and any unit which is eliminated before it attacks forfeits its attack opportunity. Sequential attacks need not be predesignated (i.e., the player may observe the results of each attack before declaring the next one), but any Withdrawal from Melee attempt (11.2) must still be announced before any CC in that Location is resolved and may not be canceled.

11.31 vs VEHICLE: All CC attacks taking place in a Location containing a vehicle (even if abandoned) must be declared sequentially (even if the vehicle neither attacks or is attacked). The non-vehicular player attacks first, but he may make only one attack at that time. If the only involved vehicle is abandoned, the player who last possessed that vehicle is considered the vehicular player. Thereafter, each side alternates taking its CC attacks one at a time until all units in that Location have attacked, been eliminated, or passed. If opposing vehicles are in the same Location, the ATTACKER makes the first attack, and attack opportunities then alternate between the players for the rest of the CC in that Location during that CCPh.

       A11.31 & G1.421


11.32 AMBUSH: Whenever one side ambushes another, the ambushing side resolves all of its CC attacks in that Location first, until a Melee develops in the next Player Turn.

11.33 PRISONERS: Prisoners attempting to eliminate their captor may resolve all of their CC attacks first (20.55).

11.34 Should more than one sequential combat criterion occur in the same CC, the highest numbered rule takes precedence.

EX: Should an Ambush occur in a CC Location containing a vehicle, the ambushing side gets to resolve all of its CC attacks in that Location first during that CCPh. In any subsequent CCPh, the players would alternate sequential attacks.

11.4 AMBUSH: Whenever Infantry advance into CC (unless reinforcing a Melee) in a woods/building Location or with/against a concealed unit(s) an Ambush can conceivably occur. Whenever a hidden unit is placed onboard as per 11.19, an Ambush can occur. Prior to declaring CC attacks, each player makes one dr. If either player rolls at least three < the other, he has succeeded in ambushing his opponent. The side which has Ambush status in a CC is entitled to a -1 DRM to its CC attacks and a +1 DRM to CC attacks against it until that CC becomes a Melee in the next Player Turn. The side with an Ambush advantage may also maintain any concealment it has in CC until it attacks without eliminating/capturing its target. The side being ambushed loses all concealment it may have had. The Ambush Status dr is subject to the following drm even if only a portion of a player's CC force is qualified to use it. A11.4 Ambush Table




Cavalry, Vehicle, or in Pillbox


Above Bank counter


Above Panji counter


BU or Stunned AFV (each)


CX, Lax, broken, pinned, or berserk (each)


ATTACKER in Jungle, Kunai, Bamboo






Leadership modifier of best unpinned Good Order leader unless alone (10.7) or if any of the force is berserk

EX: A concealed Partisan squad with a CX 8-0 leader advances into an enemy-occupied Location. The total Ambush Status drm for the Partisan player is -2 (-3 for the concealed and stealthy squad plus +1 for the CX leader).


       A11.4 & A11.41

11.41 AMBUSH WITHDRAWAL: Any Infantry (unless pinned/berserk/ Disrupted) that is part of a force which has qualified for Ambush has the option to decline CC altogether, prior to CC resolution, by immediate withdrawal into an Accessible Location or may withdraw from CC automatically after resolving all CC attacks by and against it, but only before Melee occurs.

EX: A German 6-5-8 squad advances into a Location containing a concealed Russian 4-4-7 squad. The 4-4-7 does not lose concealment yet (12.14). Both players make a dr in order to establish if an Ambush has occurred. As neither side is CX, Lax, or Stealthy, the Russian player has a -2 drm (Concealed) while the German player has no drm. The German player makes an Ambush dr of 3; if the Russian player makes an original Ambush dr of ≤ 2, he Ambushes the German (11.4). The Russian player makes an Original dr of 3, however, and no Ambush occurs. The Russian player must now decide (even though the German is the ATTACKER; 11.12) if his concealed 4-4-7 squad is going to attack in CC. If the Russian decides to attack, the 4-4-7 immediately loses its concealment (12.14), allowing the German 6-5-8 to attack at 3-2 odds. If the Russian decides not to attack, the German's attack would be 3-4 (11.19). 3-4 rounds down to the nearest odds ratio (11.11) which is 1-2. If the German CC DR is a 2 or 3, the concealed Russian squad is eliminated; if the DR is a 4, the 4-4-7 loses its concealment and becomes a HS (11.11; 12.14). Any other DR has no effect on the concealed 4-4-7; i.e., it does not lose its concealment, is not locked in Melee (11.15), and is free to leave the hex during its next MPh/APh. If it were to use Assault Movement or advance into an ADJACENT non-Open Ground Location, it would even be able to retain its concealment.

       A11.4 & A11.41


11.5 CC vs A VEHICLE: Infantry/Cavalry (only) may attack a vehicle in the CCPh but they do not use the Odds Ratios or the Kill Numbers printed on the CCT as they do when attacking Personnel. Instead, the Basic Kill Number of any vehicle in CC is the Close Combat Value (CCV) of the Personnel attacking it. The CCV of a squad is 5, a Crew is 4, a HS is 3, and a SMC is 2. The CCV is modified by +1 for an Assault Engineer, -1 for an Inexperienced unit, and +1 for a SMC combining with the main attacking unit in the same attack. A CCV subject to any form of halving FP penalty (such as being pinned) is reduced by one for each such penalty. If the CC DR is < the CCV of the attacker, the vehicle is eliminated (and turned into a burning wreck if the CC DR is ≤ half of the CCV). If the CC DR equals the CCV of the attacker the vehicle is immobilized instead. No more than two units may combine into a single CC attack vs a vehicle and one of the units in any combined attack must be a SMC who modifies the CCV of the other unit by +1. A single CC attack cannot affect both a vehicle and Personnel (except for the PRC of a vehicle, which are eliminated if the vehicle is destroyed). However, with multiple attackers in the same Location, one attack can be made vs Personnel (11.611) and subsequent attacks vs a vehicle, perhaps with a better chance of success due to the elimination of Personnel in the earlier attack.

       A7.81, A8.1, & A11.5


       A11.5 & A20.5

11.501 UNLIKELY KILL: An Original 2 CC DR always results in a chance of success for the attacker even if a CC DRM or a small CCV otherwise makes success impossible. Whenever the attacker makes an Original 2 DR, he may roll a third die. If the subsequent dr is a 1, the vehicle is a burning wreck; if a 2 it is eliminated; if a 3 it is immobilized; otherwise there is no effect. However, regardless of the subsequent dr, if the Original 2 DR would have resulted in elimination or Immobilization that result still occurs, unless canceled by an elimination or burning result from the subsequent dr.

11.51 CC DRM: CC attacks vs unarmored vehicles are eligible for a -3 DRM. A CC attack vs any vehicle without inherent manned functioning (e.g., Shock, stun, most BU AAMG) MG armament (including turreted MA ≤ 15mm) is eligible for a -1 DRM. There is a +1 DRM to the CC DR for every unbroken, unpinned, and armed [errata included] enemy HS/crew Personnel counter (+2 for each such squad) in the CC Location (and not in the act of Withdrawal) at the time of each attack unless they are BU. [errata included] There is a +2 DRM for CC vs a Motion/non-stopped vehicle. An Ambush DRM (11.4/11.8) or Hero DRM (15.24) can also apply to CC vs a vehicle. A leadership DRM applies to CC vs a vehicle only when that leader is combining with another unit in that attack. See also 11.61.


11.52 CAPTURE OF VEHICLE IN CC: Infantry may not attempt to capture a manned AFV or a Motion/non-stopped vehicle (or its PRC), but may attempt to capture or eliminate an Abandoned AFV as per 21.2. An unarmed, stopped/non-Motion vehicle without Personnel Escort is captured instantly in any CCPh in which it is alone with opposing Infantry. If an unarmored stationary vehicle has Passengers and the attacker wishes to capture (rather than eliminate) the vehicle, he must first attack and eliminate/capture all enemy Personnel in the Location, but must capture any Passengers. If all the Passengers are captured, so is the vehicle. The attacker must engage these Passengers in normal Infantry vs Infantry CC, but is eligible for both a -2 DRM for his attacks vs these Passengers and a +2 DRM in defending against attacks from those Passengers. This -2 DRM is combined with the +1 DRM for attempting to capture these Passengers in CC.

Close Combat Comprehensive Example

EX: GERMAN CCPh. All Advances (shown by yellow arrows) have been completed. The German 9-2 and 4-6-7 at ground level in hex F3 Advance onto the Wire in F4 to Streetfight (11.8) the T-34. The 4-6-7 has passed a PAATC with an Original 8 which was modified by the 9-2, but the leader did not have to take one and waited to see the outcome of the squad's PAATC before advancing. The leader and squad could attack separately but elect to defend and attack together, allowing the leader to direct the attack. Because a vehicle is involved, CC is sequential with the German attacking first. Either the 9-2 or the 4-6-7 (but not both) may make an ATMM Check dr, but the leader would have a +2 drm. The squad opts to attempt the ATMM Check and obtains one with an Original 3 dr. The German CCV is 6 (5 for the squad plus 1 for the leader) with a total DRM of -5 (-1 Street Fighting Ambush, -3 ATMM, -2 Leadership Modifier, +1 Wire). The Original CC DR of 9 is modified to a Final DR of 4. Since this is less than the CCV, the T-34 is eliminated and flipped to its wreck side (Crew Survival NA). The German 9-2 and 4-6-7 must stay in F4 due to the Wire; otherwise, they could have chosen to return to F3 because they were Street Fighting.

Because the 4-6-7 in G2 Advances into CC in a building Location in G3, Ambush can occur. The Ambush Status drm of the Russian is +1 (Lax, due to being Inexperienced) while the German drm is zero. No Ambush occurs when the Russian dr is a 3 and the German dr is a 2. The German declares a Capture attempt vs the 4-2-6 at 1:1 odds with a -1 DRM (Capture vs Inexperienced) while the 4-2-6 attacks the 4-6-7 back at 1:1 with zero DRM. The German Original CC DR of 6 results in Casualty Reduction, i.e., the Capture of one HS. The Russian original CC DR of 9 has no effect. The 4-2-6 is replaced by a 2-2-6 and a HS Prisoner possessed by the German. Taking advantage of the squad's status as a Guard, the German Deploys into two HS, one of which possesses the Prisoner HS. The survivors are now held in Melee. If the Russian Original CC DR had been 4, the 4-2-6 would have eliminated the 4-6-7 and thus would not have been Captured. If the 4-6-7 had been Casualty Reduced, the remaining 2-4-7 HS would still Capture a HS Prisoner.

Because at least one of the units in CC is concealed when the 2-4-7 Advances into G5 from G6, Ambush can occur. Both sides must now reveal their strength factors. (If one had been a dummy stack, it would be removed now.) Both the 2-4-7 and the 4-4-7 receive a -2 Ambush drm for being concealed, and the 2-4-7 Ambushes the 4-4-7 (which loses concealment) when their respective drs are 2 and 5 (since 0 is at least 3 less than 3), making CC sequential, and allowing the 2-4-7 to Withdraw, either before CC or after CC and before Melee. The 2-4-7 could choose to attack the 4-4-7 at 1:2 odds with a -1 DRM for Ambush. The 2-4-7 could keep its concealment if it eliminates the 4-4-7, and then could elect to Withdraw or not. The 2-4-7 would lose its concealment if it did not eliminate the 4-4-7 which would then attack back at 2:1 odds with +1 DRM for Ambush. If the 2-4-7 survives, it could then Withdraw. Not willing to risk CC, the 2-4-7 elects to use its Ambush advantage to Withdraw to G4 before CC. Unfortunately for the 2-4-7, there is a HIP Russian AT Gun and crew in G4 (outlined in white). The Gun and crew are placed on board unconcealed (11.21) and the 2-4-7 is eliminated.

In hex H3, the German PzV and the Russian 6-2-8 and 4-4-7 have already engaged in CC this Player Turn when the PzV entered the Location during its MPh and the Infantry used CC Reaction Fire (D7.21). Since the units are not in Melee yet, Ambush can occur when the German 5-4-8 and Hero Advance into CC in this woods hex. There is no drm to the Russian Ambush Status dr, while the German Ambush dr receives +2 drm (+2 vehicle, +1 BU, -1 Stealthy [Hero]), but no Ambush occurs when the Original dr for each side is 3. The Hero must announce if defending alone before any attacks are designated, but defends (and attacks) with the 5-4-8. Despite going first in sequential CC due to being the non-vehicular side, the Russian need not attack the vehicle and so the 6-2-8 attacks the German Infantry at 1:1 odds with zero DRM, but has no effect with an Original CC DR of 8. Subsequent attack opportunities alternate between sides and the German 5-4-8 and Hero attack back at 1:1 odds with -1 DRM (Heroic). The Original CC DR is 2, resulting in Infiltration and Field Promotion (18.12), as well as eliminating the 6-2-8. The German dr on the Leader Creation table is an Original 4 with a -2 drm (-1 German, -1 ML 8) resulting in a Final dr of 2, creating an 8-0 leader. Adding the leader to the attack does not change the result, and the German Infantry Withdraws to H2. Even if CC had not been sequential, the attacking German Infantry would have made its CC attack first and the Russian 4-4-7 would still have been unable to attack the German Infantry before it withdrew. The 4-4-7 now turns its attack against the PzV with a CCV of 5. Since the AFV is in Bypass and no Ambush occurred, the 4-4-7 receives the -1 Street Fighting Ambush DRM and Immobilizes the PzV with an Original CC DR of 6. No Immobilization TC is required. The PzV then attacks with its sN Close Defense Weapon System (11.622). Its Original IFT DR of 7 is ≤ its Usage #, so it attacks all unarmored units with 16 FP (no TEM or DRM ever apply) resulting in a 2MC vs the 4-4-7. If the 6-2-8 had survived or the German Infantry not Withdrawn, they would be attacked also. The 4-4-7 passes the 2MC, and the PzV attacks again with its 5 FP CMG vs the 4-4-7's CCV of 5 at 1:1 odds with +1 DRM (+1 Street Fighting Ambush). If the 4-4-7 had failed its 2 MC, the -2 DRM for broken would also apply to the CMG attack, for total DRM of -1. If the 4-4-7 had rolled an Original MC DR of 2 on its 2MC, Heat of Battle would apply. The Original CC DR of 12 results in the CMG Malfunctioning and Infiltration, allowing the 4-4-7 to Withdraw to H4. If the 4-4-7 stayed in the Location with the Immobile PzV instead of withdrawing, the squad would be locked in Melee; but the vehicle would not be held in Melee despite being Immobile, although it still could not shoot outside the Location it shares with the 4-4-7.

Being Fanatic, the 5-4-8 in J4 is exempt from PAATC when it Advances into I5 and attacks the T34/85 in sequential CC using Street Fighting. The German makes an ATMM check and rolls an Original 6, pinning the 5-4-8 and reducing its CCV to 4. DRM are -2 (-1 Street Fighting Ambush, -1 CE). The German then rolls an Original CC DR of 12 resulting in Casualty Reduction from Crew Small Arms (11.621). The T34/85 attacks with its CMG vs the CCV of the surviving, pinned 2-3-8 HS at 2:1 odds (4 FP:2 CCV [3 CCV -1 pinned]) with +1 DRM for Street Fighting Ambush. The Original CC DR of 9 has no effect. Since the 2-3-8 is pinned, it cannot return to its building Location and is locked in Melee with the vehicle.

Hex K4 has been in Melee for two Player Turns. The German 4-6-7 attacks the Russian 4-4-7 at 1:1 odds with zero DRM while the 8-1 declares it will attempt to Withdraw from Melee with the 4-6-7 covering. (If this were the first round of CC rather than Melee, the leader could not attempt to Withdraw.) The two Russian squads attack both German units at 3:2; zero DRM apply vs the 4-6-7 and -1 DRM apply to the leader (-2 Withdrawing, +1 covering unit). Since the leader is Withdrawing it cannot defend with the 4-6-7 so the Russian could have attacked them separately, 1:1 vs the squad and 4:1 vs the leader with the same DRM as the combined 3:2 attack. The German rolls an Original 12 CC DR resulting in no effect other than Infiltration for the Russian, who can now choose to Withdraw either or both squads before making an attack. (If the Russian had rolled to cause Infiltration, the Russian squads could Withdraw after making their attack.) The Russian Withdraws the 4-4-7 to K5 and attacks both German units with the 5-2-7 at 1:1 odds with the same DRM as before. The original CC DR of 6 results in Casualty Reduction for the leader. The Wound Severity dr of 5 eliminates the leader but no LLMC is required. The 4-6-7 and 5-2-7 remain in Melee.

Because the 4-4-7 in L5 passed a PAATC when the PzTVH entered its Location in the MPh, the squad retained its "?" when it opted not to make a CC Reaction Fire attack. The 4-4-7 now attacks the PzIVH first in sequential CC with a CCV of 5 with zero DRM. Street Fighting Ambush is NA since the 4-4-7 did not advance out of a building to attack the AFV. The Original CC DR of 7 has no effect. The AFV then attacks the squad at 1:1 odds (5 FP CMG vs 5 CCV) with zero DRM, but has no effect with an Original CC DR of 7. A Melee counter is placed in L5, although a vehicle cannot be held in Melee. If in the PzIV's next MPh it expends a Start MP, the 4-4-7 will no longer be held in Melee and could conduct a CC Reaction Fire (but not a Non-CC Reaction Fire) attack, with a +2 DRM for the AFV being Non-Stopped. The 4-4-7 which Withdrew from K4 to K5 could also attack the PzIVH on its Start MP using Street Fighting CC Reaction Fire (D7.211) with DRM of +1 (-1 Street Fighting Ambush, +2 Non-Stopped). Because the 4-4-7 in L5 was concealed at the start of CCPh, it could opt to not attack in CC, retaining its "?". The AFV's CC attack would be halved to 1:2 (2½ FP:5 CCV). If this attack has no effect, the 4-4-7 would continue to retain its "?" and not be held in Melee.

The broken 2-2-7 in J2 routed there from I3. Since the 3-3-8 is not Known, the 2-2-7 could have continued routing to K2 but would have been eliminated when it tried to enter the 3-3-8's Location. Because the 3-3-8 is not Known, the 2-2-7 can end its RtPh ADJACENT without being eliminated. When the 3-3-8 Advances into CC in the J2 building Location, Ambush can occur (even if the 3-3-8 were not concealed).

The Russian Ambush Status drm is +1 (Broken) while the German dim is -2 (concealed). The Russian is Ambushed when both roll an Original 5 Ambush dr. Even if there had been no Ambush, the broken 2-2-7 could not attack the 3-3-8, which attacks the 2-2-7 at 3:2 odds with -3 DRM (-1 Ambush, -2 broken), but rolls an Original CC DR of 11 for no effect. Because the 3-3-8 did not eliminate the its target, it loses concealment but can still Withdraw due to the ambush. If it does not Withdraw, it will be in Melee with the broken 2-2-7, which would then be relieved of the obligation to rout in the next RtPh, being required instead to Withdraw from Melee in the next CCPh while facing CC DRM of -4 (-2 broken, -2 Withdrawing).

11.6 CC vs AN AFV: In order for a MMC to advance into a Location containing a manned unconcealed enemy AFV, it must first pass a PAATC (failure of which causes the unit to become pinned). SMC, Fanatic, and Berserk units are exempt from PAATC. A leader may use his leadership modifier to aid any units in the same Location with their respective PAATC even if he does not advance into the Location himself. All Inexperienced Infantry must take a 1TC rather than a NTC in order to advance into a manned enemy AFV's Location. Once in the same Location with an enemy AFV during the CCPh, no further PAATC is necessary in order to attack it during CC. A unit which passes a PAATC must immediately advance into the AFV Location; it may not await the outcome of another unit's PAATC before deciding whether or not it wishes to advance. PAATC attempts need not be predesignated.

       A11.6 & A12.141

       A11.6 & D7.21


11.61 CC ATTACK DRM vs AFV: A CC attack vs an OT or partially armored AFV (whether CE or not) is eligible for a -2 DRM. A CC attack vs a CE CT AFV is eligible for a -1 DRM. An AFV BMG may not be used in CC even if listed as MA, but does serve to void the DRM for a vehicle defending without a MG (11.51). Any Immobile AFV is subject to a -1 CC DRM. The Immobile DRM remains -1 even if the AFV suffers from more than one immobilizing condition. See also 11.51.

11.611 PRC: The PRC of a vehicle destroyed in CC are eliminated with no chance of survival. However, Riders can be attacked separately as an Infantry-vs-Infantry CC attack. Riders are susceptible to a +1 CC DRM when attacking and a -1 CC DRM when defending. All other PRC cannot be attacked separately in CC [EXC: capturing Passengers; 11.52] and must share the fate of their vehicle.

11.612 AF: An AFV's AF is not considered in CC.

11.62 AFV CC ATTACKS vs INFANTRY: An AFV usually attacks Infantry/Cavalry on the CCT only with its AAMG FP (which usually is usable only if the AFV is CE, or is fired by a Heroic Rider; 15.23) and/or its CMG factor (unless that CMG can fire only through the VCA as signified on the counter by "CMG: VCA only"; D1.82) and/or the IFE FP of turreted MA ≤ 15mm. The only other ways an AFV may attack in CC are with a RMG factor, Riders, CE Passengers in a halftrack, or a Close Defense Weapon system. An AFV may combine any CMG (+1 DRM on a Narrow Street; B31.132), RMG, halftrack Passenger's FP, and AAMG FP into one or more combined CC attacks or use them separately in different CC attacks. All such FP is used to form Odds ratios vs the defender's CCV and uses the CCT black Kill Numbers, and is never increased due to any condition—although it can be halved due to Motion/or vs concealed units/by Pinned units (cumulatively), or negated (see Shock; C7.42 and Stun; D5.34). A defender's CCV cannot be reduced below 1; treat any condition that would do so as a CC DRM instead. Multiple ROF never applies in CC, nor do Intensive Fire penalties/restrictions. Unarmored vehicles attack Infantry/Cavalry the same way as AFV do [EXC: CE NA].

11.621 CREW SMALL ARMS: Anytime a unit attacks a non-Abandoned crewed vehicle in CC which is neither Shocked nor Stunned and rolls an Original 12, the attacking unit(s) suffers Casualty Reduction.

11.622 CLOSE DEFENSE WEAPON SYSTEM: Beginning in July 1944, certain German AFV are equipped with a close defense anti-personnel projector (Nahverteidigungswaffe) in their turret roof. It can be used to make a HE attack on the IFT if the AFV is BU, but only during the CCPh after the AFV or its Personnel Escort has been attacked in that CCPh (11.31) [EXC: an AFV may fire a Nahverteidigungswaffe before being attacked if it qualifies as the Ambusher; 11.4].16 An AFV with this capability is identified by the symbol "sN" on the back of its counter. If fired (see D13.3), it must attack all unarmored units in its Location (including friendly Personnel/Vulnerable PRC/unarmored vehicle) with 16 factors on the IFT. A Close Defense Weapon System attack cannot be combined with any other form of FP. No To Hit DR is necessary, but if the Original IFT DR is > its Usage Number there is no effect (see D13.34). Despite the use of the IFT, TEM/SMOKE/other LOS Hindrances never apply to the resolution of a CC attack.

EX: Three Russian 4-4-7 squads and an 8-1 leader wish to advance into an Open Ground hex containing a BU, Mobile, stationary German PzIVJ tank. Each squad (aided by the leader) makes a DR ≤ 8 for their PAATC (11.6) enabling all four units to advance into the German AFV's hex during that APh. In the ensuing CCPh, the Russian will get to attack first because CC vs a vehicle is sequential (11.31). His first attack is with squad A and the leader for a CCV of 6. The only applicable DRM is the leadership modifier of the 8-1 leader so the tank will be immobilized on an Original DR of 7, eliminated on an Original DR ≤ 6, and burns on an Original DR ≤ 3 (11.5). The Original DR is a 7 so the tank has been immobilized. It is now the tank's turn to attack and it does so with its Close Defense Weapon System by attacking on the IFT with 16 FP (11.622). The IFT DR is a 7 resulting in a 2MC vs all four Russian units. The Russian leader breaks as do squads A and C, but no LLTC is required (11.141). It is now the Russian's turn to attack again, but he has only one unbroken squad left with which to attack. That squad has a CCV of 5, but because the tank is now immobile the Russian qualifies for a -1 DRM. He can eliminate it with an Original DR ≤ 5. However, he rolls a 7 and it is again the German's turn to make a CC attack; this time with his 5 FP coaxial MG which is all he has left to attack with. Bow MG are not usable in CC and AAMG usually must be CE to be fired (11.62). Nevertheless, the tank now has a choice of making a 1-1 (5-5) vs squad B or C, 1-2 (5-10) vs squads B and C, or 1-2 (5-6) vs squad A and the leader, or 1-4 (5-16) vs all four units. He opts to attack all four units at 1-4, mainly because he gets a -2 DRM vs the three broken units (11.16). His Original DR is a 5 which causes Casualty Reduction among the three broken units; the unbroken squad B is not affected. A Random Selection (A.9) DR results in reducing squad A to a HS and wounding the leader due to a tie highest dr. At this point the CCPh ends since neither side has anything left to attack with which hasn't already been used in this phase. As the immobilized German AFV cannot move, it will hold all four Russian units in its hex in Melee until the next CCPh when new attacks and Withdrawal from Melee attempts may be made although the AFV may attack the Infantry during the PFPh.

       A11.622 & D7.213


11.7 VEHICLE WITHDRAWAL FROM CC: A vehicle is never held in Melee and, if Mobile, may move out of a CC Location normally in its MPh. An Immobile vehicle or a vehicle which opts to stay in a Location where it started its turn with Known armed enemy units may only fire at enemy units in that Location (7.212) and must use To Hit Case E for any ordnance attacks. Even though a vehicle cannot be held in Melee, a non-Abandoned, "unbroken" (12.1) vehicle holds all Known enemy Infantry occupying the same Location after a CCPh in Melee as long as it remains in the Location (unless in-Motion/Non-Stopped).

11.71 OTHER WITHDRAWAL FROM CC: Passengers/Riders of Immobile vehicles are held in Melee, but Cavalry, cyclists, skiers, and Passengers/Riders of Mobile vehicles who survive their initial round of CC are not required to remain in Melee. These units may dismount during their next MPh and remain in Melee without their prior handicap, as may Passengers/Riders of Immobile vehicles, or they may move out of the Melee Location in their mounted mode normally during their next MPh. Should they dismount, their form of conveyance remains with them and is subject to capture [EXC: A Mobile vehicle can still move out of the Melee Location and a manned AFV is never subject to capture]. Whenever any of the ATTACKER's units leave a Melee Location, he must declare whether any units will remain behind to preserve the Melee. Should no friendly units remain behind to keep the enemy in Melee, those enemy units are freed from Melee and may Defensive First Fire on the moving units.

11.8 STREET FIGHTING: Any vehicle in a road hex and ADJACENT to a building hex on both sides of that road is especially vulnerable to CC in that hex.17 All Infantry advancing into that road Location from ground level of one or more of those adjacent building hexes qualify for a Street Fighting Ambush -1/+1 DRM in CC vs the vehicle (not cumulative with the normal -1/+1 CC DRM for Ambush) unless actual Ambush occurs even if the vehicle is accompanied by escorting Personnel. The unit(s) would be moved onto the vehicle(s) in the road hex to make their CC attack(s) and following any CC attack returned to the same Locations they came from with mines/FFE attacking normally when they return or at their option remain in the road Location. If broken or pinned or on top of Wire, they would not be returned to their building Location. Furthermore, any vehicle in such a road hex may be attacked with CC Reaction Fire (D7.21-.211) by Infantry on the ground level of those buildings as their Defensive First Fire attack. Reaction Fire is identical to Street Fighting CC procedures except that the vehicle may not attack back; i.e., it has no CC attack options during Reaction Fire (although Crew Small Arms still applies; 11.621). Any vehicle in stationary Bypass or using VBM is also subject to Street Fighting rules from any Infantry in the Bypassed obstacle of their hex. Normal PAATC requirements (11.6) apply in all cases.