Please enable JavaScript to view this site.

Advanced Squad Leader Rulebook Updated and Erraticized

Navigation: Chapter A. Infantry & Basic Game Rules

A25 Nationality Distinctions

Scroll Prev Top Next More


[The A./G. National Capabilities Chart lists all the different MMC types (as well as their national capabilities) for all nationalities in both Chapter A and Chapter G.]

25.1 GERMAN: In general, elite ground troops prior to 1944 should be represented by 4-6-8 squads; 5-4-8 squads should be used in 1944-45 or to represent paratroops. The 4-6-8 must undergo three ELR Replacements to reach Inexperienced status, whereas the 5-4-8 will do so in two Replacements.

25.11 SS: SS squads/HS (6-5-8 / 3-4-8) are elite Class troops differentiated by the SS insignia on the counter and their increased Morale Level on their broken side.31 Early-war SS squads/HS (4-6-8/2-4-8) also have the SS insignia and increased broken Morale Level. SS crews and SMC do not receive the increased Morale Level on their broken side, and are therefore represented by normal German crew and SMC counters. SS are entitled to Assault Fire capabilities in any scenario during 1944-45. SS will not surrender to Russians via the RtPh method (20.21), do not become Disrupted while opposing Russians, and may perform Massacre (20.4). Any weapon/AFV identified in a scenario Order of Battle as belonging to a SS formation has its Depletion Numbers increased by one due to being Elite (C8.2).


25.12 COMBAT ENGINEERS: 8-3-8 squads represent special units such as the Combat Engineers of Pioneer Battalions and have an ELR of 5, regardless of the ELR of other German MMC in the scenario. However, 8-3-8s are not automatically considered Assault Engineers; any elite unit can be designated as an Assault Engineer in a DYO scenario (H1.22). SS Combat Engineers are differentiated by the SS insignia on the counter and their increased Morale Level on their broken side; SS rules (25.11) also apply.

25.2 RUSSIAN: Use of elite status troops should be reserved for those formations classified as Guards quality. Any weapon/AFV identified in a scenario Order of Battle as belonging to a Guards formation has its Depletion Numbers increased by one due to being Elite (C8.2). Russian squads may not Deploy [EXC: 20.5 & 21.22], although they can take HS losses and Recombine into squads again. A 4-2-6 squad Battle Hardens to a 5-2-7 [EXC: 25.211]; a 2-2-7 HS to a 3-2-8.

25.21 ENTRENCHING: Russian units are entitled to a -1 DRM when entrenching. This DRM does not apply to prisoners of any nationality.

25.211 RUSSIAN SMG SQUADS:31A Prior to 1941, Russian Conscript squads/HS (4-2-6/2-2-6) Battle Harden to 4-4-7/2-3-7 instead of 5-2-7/2-2-7, unless there are 6-2-8/5-2-7 in the Russian OB.

25.212 RUSSIAN EARLY WAR DOCTRINE:31B The following apply only if invoked by SSR. All CC attacks against Russian 4-2-6s/ 2-2-6s are subject to a -1 DRM that is not cumulative with the -1 DRM for a capture attempt (20.22). In each friendly MPh, any Russ­ian AFV that wishes to move must do so before any friendly non- Berserk Infantry unit moves [EXC: if (un)loading] during that MPh. Russian units may not use Armored Assault (D9.31). Russian OBA is never Accurate (C1.3) [EXC: if the AR is in a Pre-Registered hex; C1.732]. Russian aircraft receive a +2 Sighting TC DRM (E7.3).

25.22  COMMISSAR: A Commissar is a 9-0 or 10-0 leader with special capabilities. At the start of any scenario (including DYO/Russian Partisans) during or prior to 10/42, the Russian player may replace up to one 8-0 leader with a 9-0 Political Commissar and/or one 8-1 leader with a 10-0 Political Commissar provided the scenario is not begun with more Commissars than other leaders in the OB. No SSR is required to make this substitution.

25.221 A Commissar is superior to all leaders regardless of Morale Level, and therefore is the first unit in a Location to take an IFT-dictated MC (10.2), is exempt from LLMC/LLTC, and can even cause LLMC/LLTC to leaders of higher morale. An unpinned, unbroken Commissar increases the Morale Level of all other friendly Infantry/Cavalry units in the same Location by one [EXC: Commissars and units with Morale Level of 10], while prohibiting the application of another leader's DRM to morale activities. A broken Commissar must always attempt Self-Rally, even if with another leader. A Commissar never receives the leader DRM of another leader when performing any action (including MC/TC), and is not subject to Unit Substitution (19.).

       A8.1, A10.7, & A25.221

25.222 RALLY: A Commissar must attempt to rally broken units in its Location. A unit is immune to DM status while being rallied by a Commissar—in addition to the Morale Level increase (25.221). Any MMC which fails to rally under the direction of a Commissar is Replaced by the next lower quality unit of its size; if already the lowest quality, a squad is Casualty Reduced. A broken crew, SMC, or HS that cannot be Replaced is eliminated.

       A1.23 & A25.222

25.223 BERSERK: Should a Commissar go berserk, all friendly Infantry in the same Location automatically become berserk also [EXC: units immune to Heat of Battle].

25.23 HUMAN WAVE (HW): Human Wave may only be conducted by Russians and Chinese (G18.5), but it also forms the basis for Cavalry Wave (13.62) and Banzai (G1.5). The ATTACKER may declare a HW attack during his MPh by selecting ≥ 1 participating MMC (and an average of at least two MMC per hex) from each hex of a chain of three or more adjacent contiguous hexes, as well as ≥ 1 leader from any of these hexes. All the participating units must be in a contiguous chain of ADJACENT Locations, must be in Good Order, free to move, and cannot have started their MPh yet. No unit in the HW chain can be a Guard, PRC [EXC: Cavalry Wave (13.62)], or ADJACENT-to/in-the-same-hex-as an enemy unit [EXC: G1.5]. At least one unit in the HW chain must have a LOS to an enemy unit (the 'target') within eight hexes which the chain will move towards during that MPh. The units participating in the HW are termed HW Units; they lose any concealment and are exempt from Heat of Battle, PAATC, and any pin results [EXC: Minimum Move (4.134), Wounded SMC (17.2), Collapsed huts (G5.5)] while they are part of the HW; for the remainder of that Player Turn they have their Morale Level increased by one [EXC: if broken] and are Lax (11.18).

       A25.23 & G1.5

25.231 DIRECTION: The ATTACKER must choose a Hex Grain or alternate Hex Grain that includes the target enemy unit and that is as close as possible to a HW Unit that has LOS to, and is within eight hexes of, the target enemy unit. This HW (alternate) Hex Grain should be marked with HW Direction counters. The direction along the HW (alternate) Hex Grain towards, and beyond, the target enemy unit is the HW Direction [EXC: a unit conducting a Banzai Charge (G1.5) against an enemy unit in the same hex cannot be used to establish the HW Direction; if no other unit can establish the HW Direction, then only units in the hex may participate in the Banzai Charge].

25.2311 FORWARD AND SIDE LOCATIONS: During the HW, two or three of the hexes adjacent to a HW Unit are considered forward hexes. Given a normal HW Hex Grain, the hex adjacent to a HW unit in the HW Direction is a forward hex, as are the two hexes adjacent to both this hex and the HW unit. Given an alternate HW Hex Grain, the two adjacent hexes in the HW Direction are forward hexes, and the two hexes adjacent to the HW unit and one of the forward hexes are side hexes. The Locations in forward hexes that are ADJACENT to the HW Unit are Forward Locations and the Locations in side hexes that are ADJACENT to the HW Unit are Side Locations.

Normal HW Hex Grain

Alternate HW Hex Grain

25.232 MOVEMENT: All HW Units have 8 MF [EXC: a wounded SMC has 3 MF] (which can never be increased) and can enter enemy-occupied Locations, but cannot Assault Move, Dash, Search, carry more than their IPC, or use Column movement. All HW Units must move to a new Location as a multi-hex stack before any may make a new MF expenditure. This fractional part of the HW Units' MPh is called an Impulse. For each Impulse, all HW Units expend the same number of MF as the HW Unit which expends the most MF that Impulse [EXC: if a wounded SMC has enough MF to enter the next Location, but not as many MF as are being expended by the rest of the HW that Impulse, it instead expends its remaining MF to enter the new Location as if it were making a Minimum Move (4.134)—i.e., it becomes pinned and CX—even if it already entered a new Location this MPh].32 For each Impulse, each HW Unit must (if possible) do one of the following and cannot expend MF for any other reason: move to a Forward Location; move to a Side Location that contains an enemy unit; move up or down in a building while moving closer to the Ground Level and/or an enemy unit in that hex; move beneath Panji/Wire (with individual Exit dr for each HW unit); move above an Entrenchment/pillbox counter; move below an Entrenchment counter containing an enemy unit; move below an Entrenchment counter or into Crest status if lacking sufficient MF to enter a new Location. Any Panji/Wire/Entrenchment movement may be in addition to entering a new Location during an Impulse. Prior to, and at the end of, each Impulse (after all Defensive First Fire) a unit may perform any legal action that costs no MF (e.g., dropping a SW).

25.2321 RANGE: If a HW Unit increases its Range to the HW (alternate) Hex Grain (25.231)—i.e., to the closest hex of that Hex Grain—it must be marked with a Range counter. As long as it is so marked, it cannot again increase the range to the (alternate) Hex Grain. The Range counter is removed as soon as the HW Unit decreases the range in a later Impulse (or at the end of the MPh).

25.2322 A HW Unit may enter neither a Location that it left in a prior Impulse that MPh nor a Location ADJACENT to such a Location. If the HW Unit is unable to move to a new Location, it must spend its remaining Impulses in its current Location.

25.233 DEFENSIVE FIRST FIRE: Minefield/OBA/Residual FP attacks in the Location that is being left are resolved immediately as each HW Unit moves, while such attacks in the Location being entered are resolved after all HW Units have finished moving that Impulse. The DEFENDER can then First Fire on any Location(s) presently occupied by HW Units before the Impulse ends.

25.234 ENEMY UNITS: If a Forward Location enterable by a HW Unit is devoid of armed, friendly units and contains an armed, Known, non-Disrupted enemy unit, the HW Unit must move to that Location, or to another Accessible Location that contains either a Known enemy unit or a pillbox occupied by such a unit. Once any HW Unit enters such a Location during an Impulse, the Location is no longer devoid of friendly units, freeing other HW Units from the requirement to enter that Location during that Impulse. Upon entry of an enemy-occupied Location, mark all units with a CC counter. If a Location entered contains one enemy SMC only, Infantry OVR (4.15) is automatic without a NTC and with normal (non-doubled) MF cost, and the SMC cannot move to another Location. If the Location contains Disrupted/Unarmed enemy units, 19.12 and/or 20.54 apply at the end of the Impulse.

25.235 ENDING THE HUMAN WAVE: A unit remains a HW Unit (even if no longer adjacent to another HW Unit) until it is: eliminated; broken; out of MF at the end of an Impulse; at the start of an Impulse in a Location (or in a hex with a pillbox) containing an armed, Known enemy unit; or is a Guard due to capturing a SMC/Unarmed/Disrupted unit (25.234). When there are no HW Units left or no HW Unit is able to enter a new Location, the HW ends. A unit that has been part of a HW may use Advancing Fire and/or Advance if otherwise able to [EXC: if in a Location containing a Known enemy unit it is marked with a CC counter (or a Melee counter, as appropriate; 4.152, 20.54) and cannot advance out of that Location as long as that CC/Melee continues].

EX: The Russian has just declared a Human Wave attack using the enemy units in O3 for determining the direction. He must now choose a (alternate) Hex Grain that includes O3 and is as close to a HW Unit as possible. Possible (alternate) Hex Grains are: O1-O2-O3-O4...; P1-O2-O3-N3...; P1-P2-O3-O4...; Q2-P2-O3-N3...; and R2-Q3-P2-O3... which all have a range of 0 to a HW Unit. He chooses P1-P2-O3-O4.... by marking it with HW Direction counters. During the Human Wave, a unit's forward hexes will be the hexes that share hexsides 4 and 5 (see Sniper counter) with the unit's current hex, and its side hexes will be the hexes that share hexsides 3 and 6 with the current hex (i.e., a HW Unit in P2 will have O3 and P3 as forward hexes and O2 and Q3 as side hexes). If instead the non-alternate Hex Grain Q2-P2-O3-N3... had been chosen, a unit's forward hexes would be the hexes that share hexsides 4, 5 and 6, and there would be no side hexes (i.e., a HW Unit in P2 would have O2, O3, P3 as forward hexes).

As his first Impulse the Russian moves all elements of the chain forward one hex as shown, at a total cost of two MF (because the units in Q2 and R2 had to cross a hedge). The units that entered N1 and O2 are marked with a Range counter (25.2321) since they increased the range to the HW alternate Hex Grain and must decrease the range before they can increase it again. The German 4-6-7 attacks N1 with its inherent 4 FP and -2 FFMO/FFNAM DRM and rolls an Original 9, which results in a PTC which is ineffective vs a Human Wave. The 4-6-7 is marked with a First Fire counter. The squad now fires the MMG directed by the 8-1 leader (7.53) at O2 and P2 with Spraying PBF. The attack is 5 FP (Area & PBF) with a -3 DRM (grain is not in season). The Original DR is an 8 (with a 2 colored dr), resulting in a 1MC vs both hexes. The Russian player rolls a 9 for the leader which breaks and now no longer has its Morale Level increased. All four squads roll ≤ 7 and are unaffected. They need not take a LLTC because they are part of a Human Wave (which is immune to Pin results). However, the MMG retained its Multiple ROF and—because the Russian Impulse used two MF—it may First Fire again and chooses to repeat the same attack. This time it rolls an Original 5 (2 on the colored dr), resulting in a K/2. The Random Selection DR in O2 is a tie, so both squads are Reduced to HS (7.302) before taking a 2MC, which they each pass by rolling ≤ 6. The Random Selection DR in P2 selects the broken leader, who wounds, rolls a 5 on his Wound Severity dr (17.11), and thus is eliminated. If, however, the leader had survived, it would not then have to take the 2MC. The two squads roll a 6 and 7 for their 2MC which breaks one, which then passes its LLMC with a 7 [errata included]. The MG has retained its Multiple ROF and the German wants to fire again but cannot, because two shots are all that are allowed vs a moving unit that expended only two MF in its Location. The MG cannot avoid this by picking another target, because all of the units in its LOS moved simultaneously as part of the same Impulse (moreover, the other targets are all outside of the MG's now-fixed CA; 9.21).

In the second Impulse at least one of the HW Units in O2 or P2 must now enter O3 (25.234). The Russian moves all unbroken units forward as shown. Since the 4-4-7 in P2 enters O3, the two 2-3-7 in O2 are free from the restriction of 25.234 and may instead move to N2, which one of them does, while the other enters O3. Of the units that were marked with Range counters in the first Impulse, the two 4-4-7 in N1 and the 2-3-7 that enter O3 can remove their Range counters since they now decrease the range, while the 2-3-7 that enters N2 does not and must keep its Range counter. The German must use Subsequent First Fire vs the 4-4-7 and 2-3-7 as they enter his hex (8.312) and because they both enter O3 as part of the same Impulse, he fires at them simultaneously.

It is now the Russian third Impulse; the Russian units currently in O3 now end their MPh and may move no farther (25.235), but the Russians in N2 and P3 must continue the Human Wave. The units in P3 can enter O3 (since it is a Side Location containing enemy units) or the Forward Locations O4 or P4. The two 4-4-7 in N2 can enter the Side Location O3 or the Forward Locations M3 or N3, but will be marked with a Range counter if entering M3. The 2-3-7 in N2 can enter N3, but can enter neither M3 (since it is already marked with a range counter) nor O3 (which is ADJACENT to the O2 Location that the 2-3-7 left earlier in the MPh per 25.2322). From N3 it will be able to enter M4 or N4. At the end of the Impulse, the German squad must use FPF vs any new units entering O3 in that Impulse with 13½ FP (9 [FP] X 3 [TPBF] = 27 divided by 2 [Area Fire] = 13½), but only the Russian units entering O3 during that Impulse will be affected.

25.24 PARTISANS:33 Partisans can belong to any nationality but are listed here and represented by Russian colors because they were most prevalent on the Eastern Front. Partisans are represented by 3-3-7 squads with a broken Morale Level of 6, and are considered Stealthy while in Good Order. Partisans are not affected by the special rules for their nationality; a Russian Partisan unit is treated as a Partisan unit, not a Russian unit [EXC: Russian Partisans may use Commissars; 25.22]. Partisan leaders have no leadership effect whatsoever over non-partisan units (and vice versa). Unless specifically indicated otherwise, Partisans have an ELR of 5 regardless of the ELR of non-Partisan allied forces in the scenario. Partisans never surrender by the RtPh method, are considered neither elite (including SMC) nor Inexperienced for any purpose, and never become Disrupted.

25.241 MOVEMENT: Partisans may be subject to SSR which grant them specific movement advantages in wooded or urban areas. Partisans that are moving as a combined stack together with non-Partisan units may endow the regular units with whatever SSR-endowed movement advantages they have.

25.242 Ordnance used by Partisans always uses the red To Hit Numbers [EXC: ATR/MG].

25.3 AMERICAN: U.S. Infantry squads have a printed broken Morale Level one higher than that used on their Good Order side except for 1st Line Infantry, which have a broken Morale Level two higher than their Good Order side. Second Line Infantry should generally be used to represent American units which were not prepared for combat. See G17.1 for U.S. Marine Corps and G17.2 for pre-6/42 U.S. Army and Philippine Army troops.

25.31 PARATROOPS: 7-4-7 squads have an ELR of 5, regardless of the ELR of other U.S. MMC in the scenario.

25.32 ORDNANCE: All U.S.-built AFV/ordnance [EXC: ATR/MG], including such equipment used by other nationalities (identified by the (a) in the name), uses red To Hit Numbers prior to 1944 and black To Hit Numbers thereafter.34

25.33 AMMUNITION: No fighting men were better supplied than the Americans, who excelled in logistics. American OBA batteries are assumed to have Plentiful Ammunition unless specified otherwise.

25.34 SMOKE: An American squad may place either WP or conventional Smoke grenades at its option, but placing WP is more difficult (see 24.3).

25.35 U.S.-BUILT, BRITISH-COLOR SW: U.S. MMG, HMG, .50-cal HMG, M2 60mm mortars and BAZ 44 are provided in the British color in WEST OF ALAMEIN. They are identified by having "(a)" in their piece name, and are used by Free French as per 25.55. The BAZ 44(a) is also used to represent a BAZ 44 Scrounged (D10.5) from a U.S.-built vehicle/wreck [which includes one with "(a)" in its piece name] by Free French (only); other nationalities would Scrounge a U.S.-color BAZ 44. The appropriate MG(a) is also used to represent one Removed (D6.631) from a U.S.-built vehicle by a British (as defined in 25.4) unit. A MG Scrounged by any nationality from a U.S.-built or British-built vehicle/wreck takes counter form as a standard British LMG, with no Captured penalties when being used by a U.S. or British (25.4) unit. Captured penalties do not apply to the use of U.S.-color MG by British (25.4) units, nor to U.S./British-(25.4) use of British-color "(a)"-type SW [EXC: non-Free French British treat all, while Free French treat no, type(s) of U.S. MTR/BAZas captured].

25.4 BRITISH: British troops also encompass all "Commonwealth", Free French, and liberated forces. Guardsmen, Gurkha, ANZAC (Australian and New Zealand), and Free French/Polish forces should generally be regarded as elite troops, as should Canadian units—all of which were composed of volunteers rather than draftees. Colonial troops such as the King's African Rifles and pre-44 Indian troops in India and Burma should be considered 2nd Line troops represented by 4-4-7 squads. See 25.53 for Free French.

25.41 GREEN: British 4-3-6 squads (and their HS) are Green troops. They are considered Conscripts only in hypothetical scenarios depicting the British Home Guard or poor quality colonial troops.

25.42 AIRBORNE: The 6-4-8 squads represent Airborne troops and have an ELR of 5, regardless of the ELR of other British MMC in the scenario.

25.43 GURKHA: Gurkha troops were feared in CC due to their handiwork with their famed Kukri knives (which were a combination knife-hatchet-sword). Whenever ≥ one unbroken Gurkha Infantry unit is the ATTACKER in CC/Melee or Ambushes the enemy  in CC,  that CC/Melee may become Hand-To-Hand (J2.31) at the option of the Gurkha player unless every such Gurkha unit participating in it was Ambushed in that phase and/or is withdrawing/pinned. However, Hand-To-Hand CC can never be used by/vs any vehicle/PRC/pillbox-occupant(s). Each Gurkha Hand-To-Hand CC attack receives an extra -1 DRM unless every Gurkha Infantry unit participating in that attack is pinned/Unarmed. Hand-To-Hand Melee counters are provided in Code of Bushido. Gurkhas are Commandos (H1.24) unless Green. Gurkhas will not surrender via the RtPh method (20.21) or become Disrupted.

25.44 ANZAC: Good Order ANZAC (Australian and New Zealand) forces are Stealthy unless Green.

25.45 COWERING: British troops were renowned for their marksmanship and calmness under fire (or "Moral Fibre" as they termed it). Therefore, their elite and 1st Line units are immune to Cowering effects [EXC: Free French; 25.53 [errata included]] .

25.46 WP: A British squad may place only normal (i.e., not WP) smoke grenades prior to 1944. Beginning in 1944, they may also place WP (24.3). This restriction does not apply to ordnance WP ammo.

25.5 FRENCH: French units and the rules (25.51-.52) pertaining to them apply only until the French capitulation, and to Vichy French forces thereafter.35 Free French forces use British units and rules (25.53).

25.51 GREEN: French 4-3-7 squads are considered Green reservists (not Conscripts), and should ordinarily be brought into play by ELR Unit Substitution.

25.52 ORDNANCE: French vehicles use red To Hit Numbers [EXC: MG MA]; other French ordnance uses black To Hit Numbers.

25.53 FREE FRENCH: Use British counters and rules for Free French Personnel [EXC: Free French squads have Assault Fire (7.36) capability in/after 12/43; the 25.45 immunity to cowering never applies to Free French]. Free French OBA (including Accuracy and Draw Pile) is always treated as if British [EXC: DYO purchase; 25.57]. See also 25.35 and 25.54-.57 and the French section of Chapter H.

25.54 PRE-12/43 EQUIPMENT: For scenarios set prior to 12/43, Free French use (without Captured penalties) certain British [/British-color "(f)"; 25.56] SW, vehicles and Guns, and the rules covering them.

25.55 12/43-5/45 EQUIPMENT: For scenarios set in/after 12/43, Free French use (without Captured penalties) British color "(a)"/"(f)" SW (see 25.35 and 25.56), certain U.S. [/U.S.-color "(f)"; 25.35] vehicles and Guns, and the rules covering them [EXC: Free French Inherent crews are considered British when determining their morale as per D5.1].

25.56 FRENCH-BUILT EQUIPMENT: Certain French built SW/vehicles/Guns are provided in CROIX DE GUERRE for Free French use. They are in the U.S./British color, and are identified by having "(f)" in their piece name. An "(f)"-type, or French-color, SW/vehicle/Gun suffers Captured penalties when being used by other than (Free/Vichy) French.

25.57 DYO: Free French use their own SW Allotment, OBA Availability, and Rarity Factor Charts for DYO scenarios. Use H1.463 for Free French OP tanks. Free and Vichy French cannot be purchased by the same side.

25.6 ITALIAN: Italian ordnance uses the red To Hit Numbers [EXC: ATR/MG].36

25.61 ELITE: 4-4-7 squads, their 2-4-7 HS, and 2-2-7 crews are the only elite Italian MMC. Only elite Italian squads may Deploy [EXC: 20.5, 21.22]. A 4-4-7 which suffers ELR failure is Replaced by a 3-4-6.

25.62 1ST LINE: The 3-4-7 squads represent the Bersaglieri which were light infantry transported by trucks, motorcycles, or bicycles. A 3-4-7 which suffers ELR failure must be Replaced by a Conscript squad, and not a lower quality 1st Line squad, while a Conscript squad that Battle Hardens becomes a 3-4-6.

25.63 SURRENDER: The +1 CC DRM for a capture attempt does not apply vs non-elite Italian defenders. Once captured, no Italian unit will attempt escape (20.55).

25.64 LAX: Non-elite Italian units are always Lax (11.18).

25.65 PAATC: Non-elite Italian troops (including Inexperienced units) must pass a 1PAATC rather than a normal PAATC whenever required to take a PAATC.

25.7 FINNISH:37 Finnish Personnel [EXC: Conscript squads/HS (4-3-7/2-2-7)] may at­tempt Self-Rally during any RPh, are immune to Cowering results, and are Stealthy if Elite/1st ­Line. All Finnish units are ski-capable (E4.2).

25.71 LEADERS: Finnish units usu­ally take less severe LLMC/LLTC (the most severe being a 1MC/1TC) be­cause Finnish leaders have a unique rank structure descending in order as follows: 10-1, 10-0, 9-1, 9-0, 8-0, 8+1. Finns are not eligible for Field Promotion. In addition to Deploying normally, a squad may Deploy without a leader by pass­ing a 1TC instead of a NTC (1.31). A leader is not required in order to Recombine (1.32).

25.72 BATTLE HARDENING:37A Finnish leaders Battle Harden and are Replaced accord­ing to the unique Finnish rank structure (25.71). The 8+1 leader cannot be Replaced and will therefore Disrupt instead. The progression for all Finnish MMC subject to Replace­ment (19.13) is shown here. All Finnish MMC that Battle Harden (15.3) follow the reverse of this order. A Finnish 1st Line MMC that Battle Hardens becomes Fanatic (10.8). An Unarmed Finnish MMC that becomes rearmed (20.551-.552) is replaced by a Conscript squad/HS of its size.

25.73 SISSI: The 8-3-8 squads and 3-3-8 HS represent Sissi elite units which were handpicked and specially equipped.

25.74 1ST LINE: Finnish 1st Line Personnel may use FT and DC as if they were Elite (22.3, 23.2).

25.75 CAPTURED EQUIPMENT: Finnish Personnel may use Russian MG [EXC: LMG in 1939; .50-cal HMG] and Russian Personnel may use Finnish "(r)" MG without Captured Use penalties (21.11-.12, E1.76). Germans may use Finnish-color PSK (and vice-versa [EXC: 25.77]) without Cap­tured Use penalties.

25.76 PANZERFAUST (PF):37B Finnish Elite/1st-Line MMC use PF as if they were Germans (C13.3) except as otherwise noted. Availability begins 7/44, and the PF range is always one hex. A unit making a Final PF Check dr ≤ 2 has a PF and an opportunity to fire it. All non-date-dependent PF Check drm apply normally. The total number of PF shots taken in a scenario may not exceed 1½ (FRD) times the number of Elite/1st-Line MMC squad-equivalents.

25.77 PANZERSCHRECK (PSK): Finnish Personnel may only use PSK in scenarios set in 7/44-45. Finnish 2nd-Line/Green/Conscript Personnel use all PSK with Captured Use penalties.

25.78 OBA: Finnish OBA batteries use a Draw Pile (C1.211) of six black and three red chits if the scenario is set in 1939-40, and seven black and three red if it occurs in 1941-45. In 1943-45, Finnish OBA batteries are assumed to have Plentiful Ammunition [EXC: vs Germans] unless specified otherwise.

25.79 ORDNANCE: Finnish ordnance uses red To Hit numbers [EXC: ATR/MG].

25.8 AXIS MINORS:38 The Romanian, Hungarian, Slovakian, Croatian, and Bulgarian troops which comprised Germany's minor allies were neither well equipped, nor particularly ardent practitioners of Hitler's war. As such, the broken Morale Level of all such non-elite squads is one less than their unbroken Morale Level. Any Axis Minor troops fighting within their own borders should generally be represented by Elite and 1st Line MMC with an SSR making their broken side Morale one higher than printed [EXC: when fighting against partisans or Germans]. Due to the historical dislike Hungarians and Romanians had for each other, in all scenarios where Hungarians are fighting Romanians, the broken Morale Level of their MMC is one higher than printed and No Quarter (20.3)39 is in effect for both sides.

25.81 PAATC: Non-elite Axis Minor troops40 (including Conscript units) [EXC: 1st Line Romanian MMC beginning 7/43] must always pass a 1PAATC rather than a normal PAATC when called upon to take a PAATC.

25.82 ESCAPE: Axis Minors [EXC: if within own national borders vs Russians] will not attempt escape. Non-Elite Axis Minors surrender on a Final Heat of Battle DR ≥10 [EXC: in any scenario where the Hungarians and Romanians are fighting each other, each nationality goes Berserk on a Final Heat of Battle DR of 10 or 11 (rather than Surrender)].

25.83 ORDNANCE: Axis Minors use red TH# [EXC: Romanian, Hungarian, and Slovakian units using German-manufactured or Czech-manufactured equipment, as designated by "(g)" or "(t)" in the piece name, use black TH#]. HEAT is available beginning 1/43 per the applicable Chapter H note.

25.84 SMG SQUADS: The 5-3-7 squads and their 2-2-7 HS are 1st Line MMC that are available as Romanian SMG squads (infantry in armored units, Air Force security units, etc.) beginning 1/43 and in some Bulgarian armored units beginning 10/44. A 5-3-7/2-2-7 is replaced by a Conscript when it suffers ELR and becomes Fanatic if it Battle Hardens, while a Conscript squad that Battle Hardens is replaced by a 3-4-7.

25.85 PANZERFAUST (PF): Non-crew Romanian and Hungarian MMC use PF as if they were Germans (C13.3) except as otherwise noted. Availability begins 3/44 for Romanians and 6/44 for Hungarians. A unit making a Final PF check dr ≤ 2 has a PF and an opportunity to fire it. PF range is limited to one hex prior to June 1944 and two hexes from June 1944 on. All non-date-dependent PF check drm apply normally. Additionally, Conscripts receive a +1 PF Check drm, Elite Romanians receive a -1 PF check drm vs AFV, and all Romanians receive a +1 PF check drm in scenarios set in 1945. The total number of PF shots taken in a scenario may not exceed the number of squad-equivalents for Hungarians in 1944-45 and for Romanians in 1945, and 1½ times the number of squad-equivalents for Romanians in 1944.

25.86 HUNGARIAN TROOPS: Hungarian troops are represented by unique two-tone counters41. All Axis Minor rules apply normally.

25.87 ROMANIAN ATMM: Beginning 7/43 an unbroken and unpinned, Elite/1st-Line Romanian non-crew MMC42 may roll for an ATMM (C13.7) before making its CC attack [EXC: ATMM add a -2 DRM to the CC attack of that unit]. The only drm that apply to an ATMM Check are +1 for CX, +1 vs an unarmored vehicle, +1 if a HS, +1 if 1st Line, and +1 before 1944.

25.9 ALLIED MINORS: The broken Morale Level of all minor country squads is one less than that unit's unbroken Morale Level [EXC: Greek or Yugoslavian forces opposing an all-Italian OB have the broken Morale Level of their MMC increased by one]. Polish and Belgian elite and 1st Line Infantry squads should generally be assigned Assault Fire via a SSR.43

25.91 PAATC: Non-elite Allied Minor troops (including Inexperienced units) must pass a 1PAATC rather than a normal PAATC when called upon to take a PAATC.

25.92 After the conquest of their own country, Allied Minor forces are often represented by the British or Russian forces by whom they were organized and supplied, and are therefore governed by those British or Russian nationality rules.