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Advanced Squad Leader Rulebook Updated and Erraticized


[Players should check the Index for definitions of "Infantry" and "Personnel" before proceeding further.]

4.1 BASIC Mph: During his Mph, the ATTACKER may move all, some, or none of his Infantry units provided they did not fire during the PFPh and are neither broken, TI, designated to use Opportunity Fire, nor held in Melee. Infantry can be moved in any direction or combination of directions up to the limit of their movement allotment, which is measured in Movement Factors. Infantry units may move over and stack on top of other friendly units, although their ability to do so with enemy units during the MPh is restricted to a few specific cases (see 4.14). Each unit's movement allotment may be increased, decreased, or restricted by certain circumstances.

4.11 MOVEMENT FACTOR (MF): Every Good Order MMC has a four MF allotment [EXC: three if Inexperienced] and every Good Order SMC has a six MF allotment with which to move in its MPh [EXC: The MF allotment of a SMC is reduced to four MF if it mounts, rides, or dismounts any form of conveyance during that Player Turn. Wounded SMC (17.2) and Inexperienced Infantry have their MF allotment increased to four MF if they mount, ride, or dismount any conveyance during that Player Turn]. A MF bonus of one can be earned for road movement (see B3.4). A MF cannot be transferred between units nor can it be accumulated from turn to turn. All Personnel and Horse-Drawn transport use MF as opposed to vehicular counters which use Movement Points (MP).

4.12 LEADER BONUS: Any Good Order MMC which begins the MPh/APh and ends its MPh/APh stacked with a leader of the same nationality in the same Location, at the same level (2.8), and with the same wire/entrenchment/panji/paddy status is eligible for a two MF bonus during that MPh/APh, provided it expends all its MF while moving in a combined stack with that leader, and does not expend any of its MF to mount, ride, or dismount any form of conveyance. [errata included]

       A4.12, A4.2 & 4.63

       A4.12, A4.42, A4.5, & A4.52

       A4.12, A12.121, & A23.3

4.13 TERRAIN EFFECTS: Whenever Infantry moves into a hex during the MPh, it expends MF for that turn equal to the cost of the terrain within that hex as listed on the Infantry column of the MF Entrance Cost portion of the Terrain Chart/Desert Terrain Chart/PTO Terrain Chart, unless using Bypass movement.

4.131 HEXSIDE COSTS: Certain types of terrain depictions conform to hexsides. When crossing such a hexside to enter a new hex, an Infantry unit pays a specified number of MF for crossing that hexside plus the Cost of Terrain (COT) of the hex entered.

4.132 ROAD: Infantry entering a hex via a road hexside must pay either the road entry cost or the cost of other terrain in the hex. Road movement costs for Infantry are not cumulative with that of other terrain in the same hex (except for SMOKE). If Infantry pays the cost of other terrain in the hex, it is considered in that terrain and avoids FFMO DRM unless that other terrain is Open Ground. If any LOS Hindrance (such as SMOKE) or Artificial Terrain (such as AFV/wreck) is present, FFMO is negated even though the unit uses Road movement. Otherwise, if it pays only the road entry cost, it is subject to FFMO DRM (4.6) in that hex if the LOS can be traced to either of the two target points (a/b below) in that hex without crossing an obstruction in that hex. If the target enters at the road rate, the firer has the option of tracing LOS to either: a) the hex center dot, or b) the point where the hexside crossed intersects the road used. If the LOS to one target point is blocked, the firer can still fire at the other with no additional penalty.

4.132 EX: A squad entering 5I4 at a cost of one MF would be subject to a -1 TEM for fire from G2, J3, K3, or L2 if the squad used Assault Movement, or a -2 TEM if it did not; there would be no woods TEM. However, if the squad entered I4 at a cost of two MF without using Assault Movement, only the FFNAM (-1) and Woods TEM (+1) would apply (cumulatively). Fire from I5 or J4 to I4 (represented by the blue arrows) would never receive the -1 FFMO DRM because it must trace its LOS through the Woods depiction in I4. Fire from H4 or I3 would qualify for the -1 FFMO DRM (red arrows) only if the unit entered I4 at the one MF rate across the H3-I4 hexside, because otherwise it would have to trace its LOS through the woods depiction in I4 (blue arrows)

Similarly, Infantry could use the road in 5I10 to enter the building in I9 at a cost of one MF but if it did, it would be subject to the FFMO DRM (and no building TEM) for fire from any adjacent hex (except I8, whose LOS cannot reach either the hex center dot or any point on the road depiction of the I9-I10 hexside without first encountering the building obstacle).

       A4.132, A6.12, B3.43 & G1.6121

4.133 ELEVATION CHANGE: The MF cost for Infantry, Cavalry, and Horse-Drawn transport entering many terrain types is doubled while moving into a new hex one level higher than that previously occupied (see B.2). There is no penalty for moving along the same level of high elevation hexes, nor is there a lessened cost for moving from higher to lower elevations [EXC: bicycles (D15.81), skis (E4.31)]. There is no penalty for moving to a lower elevation hex except in the case of Abrupt Elevation Changes (B10.51) and Ground Snow (E3.723).

4.133 EX: Hex 3W4 costs two MF to enter from hexes V4, W5 or X4. It costs four MF to enter from V3, W3 or X3 because the unit is moving to a higher elevation.

       A4.133 & B2.4

4.134 MINIMUM MOVE: An Infantry unit retaining at least one MF after deducting for portage costs exceeding its IPC, may make a Minimum Move of one hex during its MPh, even if CX or lacking the MF to pay the full entry cost of the hex [EXC: Infantry pushing a Gun or loading/unloading may never Minimum Move]. After a unit has entered a hex by Minimum Move and undergone all First Fire, all unbroken survivors become both pinned and CX (even if CX previously). If the entry cost of a hex is defined as "all" of a unit's MF and there is still yet another cost to be paid beyond that, a Minimum Move can still be made. However, a Minimum Move cannot be made to enter terrain whose entrance cost is listed as NA (Not Allowed). In any case, the unit is considered to have spent the actual MF cost of entry.

EX: A CX Russian squad with a HMG in 3W3 (see previous illustration) lacks the necessary four MF to enter W4, but may do so anyway by claiming a Minimum Move and becoming both CX and pinned. Consider it to have spent 4 MF.

EX: It takes all of a unit's MF to enter Marsh, but if entering it from a lower level hex (e.g. from 13J5 to K5) it would cost two times all of its MF and therefore could be entered only as a Minimum Move. An Inexperienced MMC would have spent 6 MF, while a SMC would have spent 12 MF.


       A4.134 & A15.4

4.14 ENEMY UNITS: Infantry may not move into the same Location containing an unconcealed enemy unit during the MPh [EXC: Berserk (15.43), Human Wave (25.23), Disrupted (19.12), Unarmed (20.54), and Infantry OVR (4.15)], but may do so during the APh. However, PRC (7.211, D6.5) and charging Cavalry (13.61) can dismount in such a hex during the MPh.


       A4.14 & A10.51

4.15 INFANTRY OVR:3 An Infantry MMC may enter in the MPh a Location containing only one Known enemy SMC (unless that SMC occupies an AFV) at double the total MF cost of entry provided it has passed a NTC to enable it to enter the Location [EXC: Berserk (15.432)]. A leader may exempt all MMC he is stacked with and moves with from that NTC by passing it himself but if he fails, no unit in his stack may attempt a NTC individually nor may any of those units move or take any other action during that phase (10.1). A unit may take its NTC at any time during its MPh prior to entering the enemy Location (or in the enemy Location in the case of entry of a Location containing only a concealed SMC), but must add a DRM equal to the TEM (and any applicable  LOS  Hindrance  in—not  between—that  Location  such  as SMOKE, grain, or orchard) of the enemy-occupied Location it wishes to enter (hexside TEM apply only if the present LOS crosses that hexside). If other (concealed) units are in the same Location, 12.15 would apply. More than one SMC must be revealed to deny a Location to an enemy MMC capable of OVR. Other MMC could attempt subsequent Infantry OVR attacks but each would require a separate NTC.



       A4.15 & A12.15

4.151 SMC OPTIONS: The SMC being OVR has two options if in Good Order. It may attack the moving units on the IFT normally (non-heroic leaders with no SW have no such FP) with PBF/TPBF as applicable, and then, if the MMC is in the SMC's Location, engage in immediate CC during that MPh; or the SMC may immediately, prior to any Defensive First Fire vs the ATTACKER, enter (free of all enemy fire) into any adjacent Accessible Location of the ATTACKER's choice which is not occupied by an enemy unit. The ATTACKER may not force the SMC into a minefield, FFE, Wire, or Open Ground hex if an alternate choice is available as the ATTACKER's MMC enters its hex. If the SMC is broken, pinned, already held in Melee, TI, occupying a vehicle, or otherwise incapable of movement it does not have this movement option, and its attack options are restricted as befits its status. This movement or attack option can be used by the same SMC again during that MPh if it is OVR by Infantry again, provided it is not now held in Melee.

4.152 CC: If, after Defensive First Fire, the SMC remains in its Location with the entering MMC, normal CC immediately ensues during that MPh. Should the SMC be eliminated or captured, the OVR unit(s) which defeated it may continue their MPh from that Location with any remaining MF allotment. Other units which have not already ended their MPh may then also transit the Location during that MPh. Should the SMC survive this initial CC, it and the OVR units are considered in Melee, marked with a Melee counter, and subject to CC again in that Location in that turn's CCPh. Should another MMC attempt to OVR it while the SMC is in Melee, that MMC may attack it in CC (even though the SMC has already been attacked during that MPh and may not attack back in that MPh) but only the newly arriving attacking unit(s) is eligible to continue movement with any remaining MF in that MPh if successful.

4.2 MECHANICS OF MOVEMENT: Whenever a player moves a unit during his MPh he states aloud the MF expended by that unit in entering each hex or in performing any other activity within its current hex. If the unit is going to end its MPh there it must state so before moving another unit. The player is not allowed to take the unit back to a previously occupied hex and begin again [EXC: If a unit's move is illegal, either player may cite the illegal move and demand the move be retraced from the last legally entered hex unless another unit has moved, fired, or performed any other action in the interim]. Once a unit moves, stops, and another unit moves, the original unit may move no farther during that MPh. Infantry may be moved one unit at a time unless berserk (15.43), in Column (E11.52), or a MMC is using bonus MF gained by being part of a Human Wave (25.23), or moving with a leader, or gaining added TEM (D9.31) for moving with an AFV. Otherwise, units may choose to move together as a stack at their own risk and may break up the stack during the MPh to continue to move separately but all members of that moving stack must end their MPh before another unit not in that stack may move.4 Units moving as a stack expend MF simultaneously and need not spend MF for the same purpose, but must designate at the same time all actions for the same MF.

       A4.12, A4.2 & 4.63

4.3 BYPASS: Bypass enables unbroken Infantry to move through a building/woods hex without entering the obstacle in that hex (and consequently having to pay the two MF cost of actually entering a building or woods), whenever that obstacle does not physically touch the hexside being Bypassed. Bypass cannot be used to skirt the edges of any other terrain feature (including gully-woods), nor an obstacle that is Ablaze or contains an armed non-Disrupted (19.12) Known enemy unit. Hexes containing rubble or Wire cannot be Bypassed. A hexside forming a part of a Wire Location, or covered by a Water Obstacle (24L9-M9), may not be Bypassed (B26.44) on either side of the hexside; roadblocks also have Bypass restrictions (B29.4). SMOKE does not prevent Bypass but adds to the MF cost (24.7) of transit through the hex. Bypass may be used in a mined woods/building hex but does not prevent mine attacks. Use of Bypass movement does not prevent placement of a DC (23.3) or SMOKE grenade (24.1). Bypass must be announced with the expenditure of MF as the unit moves inside the building/woods hex. A unit that decides to occupy an obstacle it is currently Bypassing must pay the entire in-hex MF cost to enter that obstacle even though it is already in the hex.

4.31 The movement cost of Bypass becomes that of the other terrain in the Location—usually one MF for Open Ground or two MF to enter higher elevation Open Ground. [EXC: The building in building-woods hex 2I9 can be Bypassed along the I9-J9/I9-J8 Open Ground hexsides at a cost of one MF, or along two of its four woods hexsides at a cost of two MF (for moving around the building through the woods), rather than paying the normal entry cost of four MF for the hex.] Bypass may consist of one or two contiguous unblocked hexsides of the building or woods hex being traversed. Bypass may exceed two contiguous unblocked hexsides per hex, but in so doing the Bypass cost for that hex is doubled. Remember that the unit is moving around the obstacle within the hex—not through it. Should there be any question whether a building or woods symbol touches a hexside, Bypass in that hex is blocked (i.e., is not allowed) along that hexside. Walls and hedges are considered extensions of hexsides for purposes of applying the mechanics of this rule; therefore if a wall/hedge depiction touches a building/woods depiction, bypass is blocked along that hexside.

EX: The squad in 2D3 may Bypass D4 by moving in D4 along the D4-C4 and D4-C5 hexsides at a cost of one MF. However, it will cost the squad two additional MF to enter D5 because of the wall hexside, whereas it will cost only one MF to enter C5 even though the wall hexside extends to the D4-C5-D5 vertex. The squad cannot move into any hex other than C5 or D5 at this point during its MPh, unless it expends another MF for continued Bypass to D4-D5-E5 or D4-E4-E5; however, it can enter the building in D4 by expending two more MF.


4.32 BROKEN IN BYPASS: Infantry that voluntarily ends its MPh in an obstacle hex must pay the full MF cost of that obstacle unless it entered at the road movement rate (4.132); Infantry may not voluntarily end its move using Bypass. If the unit breaks while using Bypass, it remains in the open portion of the obstacle hex until the end of its MPh and is subject to the FFNAM (and usually also FFMO) DRM for multi-hex movement in the open for additional First Fire attacks made against it to or through the hexsides it traversed during that MPh. The broken unit and all portaged equipment are assumed to be in the obstacle during and after Final Fire.

       A4.32-.33, A8.1, A12.15 & B23.71

4.33 PINNED IN BYPASS: Any Infantry unit that becomes pinned, or involuntarily stranded (24.1), while using Bypass is assumed to be in the non-obstacle portion of the obstacle hex for the remainder of its MPh. After its MPh it is considered in the obstacle itself and entitled to its protective TEM for all subsequent fire. Concealed enemy units in the Location lose that status (12.151) at the end of the moving unit's MPh.

4.34 BYPASS LOS: Infantry using Bypass are subject to special terrain modifiers and LOS rules. A unit firing at a Bypassing unit does not have to trace its LOS to the target hex center, but has the option to make its one allowed LOS check per attack to either hex vertex along a hexside traversed by a unit moving in Bypass (thus a choice of two vertices for one hexside Bypass, three vertices for two hexsides Bypassed, etc.) instead. Should the LOS of a firing unit reach an Open Ground Bypass hexside vertex unobstructed (see also C.5), that unit can claim a LOS and a First Fire -2 DRM for non-Assault Movement in the open. A wall or hedge in the target hex is not an obstacle to LOS even though the target may be in Bypass on the other side of that same target hex (although its TEM would apply if crossed by the LOS). If the firer traces his LOS to the hex center, it must cross a bypassed hexside (thus usually qualifying for a -2 DRM for Non-Assault Movement in Open Ground) before reaching that hex center or the LOS is blocked. If a unit is using Bypass (including VBM) along a Crest Line, and the obstacle it is Bypassing is on the higher level of that Crest Line, then the unit is also at that higher level (since a Crest Line itself cannot be Bypassed; 4.3).

EX: Using the previous example, the squad Bypassing 2D4, one can examine a variety of First Fire opportunities against it. As the squad enters D4, it must declare which side of the building it is moving around. If it declares hexsides D4-C4, D4-C5 it can be fired on from C7 with a -2 DRM for FFNAM/FFMO by tracing a LOS from C7 to either the D4-C4-D3 or the D4-C4-C5 Bypass hexside vertices. If it declares D4-E4, D4-E5, however, it is out of LOS from C7 at the D4-D3-E4 vertex because that vertex cannot be seen through the building in D4. The firer can trace its LOF to the D4-E4-E5, D4-D5-E5, or the D4-C5-D5 vertices but the FFMO DRM will not apply due to the wall TEM activated by the LOS crossing the wall at D4-D5. The wall TEM will also apply to the fire directly along a wall hexspine (B9.3) such as that from C5 to the D4-D5-E5 vertex.


       A4.34, B.6, C.5B, & C.5C

4.4 PORTAGE: A SW may not move by itself; it must be carried or placed on a vehicle by Infantry/Cavalry at some cost to the latter's MF allotment. The various SW portage costs are listed on each SW counter in the form "#PP". Portage cost is assessed per item carried, not distance traveled; even if a unit carries a SW during only one MF expenditure before dropping it, that unit may not recoup the portage cost used for that SW for use in the remainder of its MPh. Otherwise, an unbroken Infantry unit can pick up and drop items at any point in its move provided it has sufficient MF to do so (subject to 4.431 & 4.44). No item can be portaged more than once per phase except as allowed by combined Infantry and vehicle portage within a single phase.


4.41 AFPh SW FIRE LIMITS: No MMG, HMG, mortar, INF/RCL SW, or ⅝" non-vehicular ordnance counter which moved [other than being Recovered (4.44)] during the MPh may fire during the ensuing AFPh [EXC: German dm MMG/HMG may fire as LMG; 9.8]. However, if such weapons remained stationary while their new owners moved into their Location, they can be fired during the ensuing AFPh with the normal penalties for fire in the AFPh—assuming they were Recovered during that MPh (4.44). A weapon fired during the AFPh cannot use Intensive Fire and is limited to one shot regardless of its ROF [EXC: if using Opportunity Fire; 7.25].


4.42 INHERENT PORTAGE CAPACITY (IPC): A MMC has an IPC of three PP, and a SMC has an IPC of one PP.5 An Infantry unit loses one MF for each PP carried in excess of its IPC. A SMC may never portage more than two PP although one SMC can add its IPC to that of any one Good Order Infantry unit to increase the IPC of the latter, provided the two units start the phase together and move together as a stack. Otherwise, Infantry units may not combine their IPC. A broken unit may not portage anything in excess of its IPC (see 10.4) even if accompanied by a leader.

EX: A squad carrying four PP has only three MF left to expend in the MPh, but if accompanied by a leader that same squad has six MF remaining to use in the MPh (unless the leader carries a PP of his own in which case they have five MF left to expend in their MPh).

       A4.42 & D6.5

       A4.12, A4.42, A4.5, & A4.52


4.43 POSSESSION: All SW/Gun counters belong to the first Personnel unit stacked beneath them. A SW/Gun must be possessed (i.e., on top of a Personnel unit) to be fired or portaged (or pushed). A unit can possess any number of SW/Guns. If a unit breaks and rallies in the same Location, possession of its own SW/Gun is always retained. An unbroken unit may drop possession of a SW/Gun at no MF cost during its MPh (and thus need not actually move), APh, or at the start of a CCPh (11.21) in order to Withdraw from Melee.6 If a unit drops possession of a SW/Gun at the start of an allowed phase prior to expending MF/advancing/Withdrawing, that SW/Gun is assumed to have been unpossessed (and hence not portaged by that unit) at the start of that phase. Units also drop SW/Guns before they surrender or are captured (20.4), and sometimes before they can rout (10.4). Unpossessed SW in a marsh, shallow or deep stream, and unpossessed SW/Gun in any Water Obstacle, Blaze Location (or burning vehicle), or building Location when rubbled are removed from play.

EX: A stack consists of a leader, a LMG, a PSK, and two squads in order from top to bottom. Both SW belong to the 5-4-8 even though it must forfeit its inherent FP to fire both of them that turn.

       A4.43, A4.44 & ASOP

       A4.43, A15.23, & A15.24

       A4.43 & G1.424

4.431 TRANSFER: Stacks may be freely rearranged to change possession of SW/Guns—but in all cases only between different Good Order unpinned units in the same Location [EXC: Wire (B26.4); Panji (G9.52); NA between Crest-status units and units IN a Depression], and only during a RPh, at the start of their APh, or as a result of the creation of a sub-unit from a MMC. When a Personnel unit drops possession (4.43), is eliminated/surrenders, or routs and cannot carry away its SW, its SW/Gun is left unattended in the same Location as per 4.32 or on the same vehicle [EXC: Rider Bailing Out (inclusive of D6.24, D15.46, D15.53)], and must be Recovered to be possessed. Transfer/Recovery of a SW/Gun on a vehicle in Motion can be achieved only by Passenger(s)/Rider(s) of that vehicle who likewise can only Transfer/Recover a SW/Gun which is on that Motion vehicle.

       A3.1 & A4.431

4.44 RECOVERY: Infantry may claim possession of an unpossessed SW/Gun at the start of any RPh as their sole action during that RPh, provided they make a Recovery Final dr < 6 (∆). Infantry may also Recover an unpossessed SW/Gun during their MPh on a Final dr < 6 (∆) after an expenditure of one extra MF (limit of one attempt per unit per SW or Gun per MPh), even if they attempted Recovery in the RPh. Only a SMC can Recover a SW/Gun possessed by a friendly broken unit, and does this by rolling a Recovery Final dr of < 6 (∆) in its RPh/MPh without need of MF expenditure; if a unit surrenders, is eliminated, or routs away and cannot carry its SW, an Infantry SMC can immediately Recover one of that Infantry unit's SW/Guns in this same manner but regardless of phase. In all cases, a Recovery attempt is allowed only by an unpinned, Good Order non-Bypassing unit in the same Location as the SW/Gun but that is not in the same Location as an armed, Known enemy unit [EXC: Wire (B26.4); Panji (G9.52); Recovery of a SW/Gun IN a Depression is NA by a Crest status unit and vice versa]. A SW/Gun cannot be Transferred in the same phase it is Recovered. Recovery drm include +1 if CX and +1 at night. See G.5 for jungle/kunai/bamboo. See "SW Recovery" in the index for other PRC Transfer/Recovery capabilities.

       A4.43, A4.44 & ASOP



       A4.44 & A8.1

       A4.44 & A12.

4.5 DOUBLE TIME: Any Infantry (including bicyclists/skiers) capable of movement and neither broken, wounded, nor CX, may Double Time by its owner announcing the option at the start of its MPh and placing a CX (4.51) counter on the unit. Double Time increases the MF allotment of Infantry by two. [EXC: Double Time can be announced after a unit has expended MF, but doing so increases the unit's MF by only one while incurring the same penalties.] A Double Timing leader (and any units accompanying him) have eight MF—the highest possible allotment for Infantry [EXC: Only seven MF if Conscript Personnel; one extra MF is possible if the entire move is along a road; B3.4]. Double Time does not allow any additional movement when entering a Location whose cost of entry is "all". Double Time may not be used by a unit that will mount, ride, or dismount any form of conveyance during that Player Turn, or that will attempt to move beneath a Wire counter (B26.46).

       A4.12, A4.42, A4.5, & A4.52

       A4.5 & A15.21

       A4.5, A4.51, & A13.36

4.51 COUNTER EXHAUSTION (CX): CX units must add one to any labor task or attack DR they make or direct (+1 to To Hit DR for ordnance; +1 to IFT DR for all others). CX units must add one to any inherent SW (ATMM, MOL, PF) or SMOKE Grenade Availability Check dr they make. CX units must also add one to any CC attack they make, and deduct one from any CC attack made against them. CX units must add one to their Search/Recovery dr (12.152; 4.44), and Ambush Status dr (11.4), and may not advance into Difficult Terrain (4.72). A unit's CX counter is removed if the unit breaks; or in its next Player Turn as soon as it: has completed all of its Prep Fire, or is designated as an Opportunity Firer, or moves (unless due to a Minimum Move or Deep Stream Entry it becomes CX again), or becomes TI; or at the conclusion of its next MPh—whichever comes first. A CX counter is removed at the start of a MPh and does not affect that unit during that MPh other than prohibiting its use of Double Time during that MPh.

       A4.5, A4.51, & A13.36

4.52 PORTAGE EFFECTS: CX Infantry have an IPC one < normal. Each PP carried in excess of this reduced IPC is deducted directly from their increased MF allotment.

EX: A squad carrying four PP has only three MF because four PP is one > a squad's IPC. However, if that squad Double Times, its MF allotment is increased to four (4 MF + 2 MF [CX] - 2 MF [2 PP > CX IPC] = 4).

EX: A HS carrying five PP has only two MF; if accompanied by a leader, they would have five MF (4.12, 4.42). If the HS (only) Double Times with the leader, they have six MF. However, if the leader also Double Times, then they have only five MF.

       A4.12, A4.42, A4.5, & A4.52

4.6 MOVEMENT MODIFIERS (FFMO/FFNAM): Infantry that has moved during the MPh without using Assault (or Hazardous) Movement is subject to a -1 FFNAM DRM to all Defensive First Fire attacks against it in addition to the applicable TEM of its Location [EXC: Minefield attacks and units moving from one trench to another]. Units loading onto/disembarking from vehicles are always subject to FFNAM except vs mines. A further -1 First Fire DRM applies to units moving in the open (FFMO), but whenever such movement is combined with another effective protective TEM or LOS Hindrance feature (such as SMOKE or an AFV/wreck) between the target and firer or in the target Location itself, the -1 FFMO DRM does not apply.

       A4.6, A12.14 & D9.4

4.61 ASSAULT MOVEMENT: Non-berserk Infantry that remains Infantry throughout the MPh (i.e., is not a PRC during that phase), and that moves ≤ one Location during its MPh without using all of its MF (including any leader/road bonus, but not Double Time), may use Assault Movement. [EXC: additional MF expenditure within a Location (e.g., out of, or into, a Fortification, or Recovery) in addition to a change of Location, does not prevent Assault Movement unless, in so doing, a unit expends all its MF or requires CX status.] A unit using Assault Movement in Open Ground is subject to the -1 FFMO DRM but not to the -1 FFNAM DRM. Assault Movement, if it is to be used, must be declared prior to movement of that unit, and is not applicable to Infantry using Hazardous Movement (4.62) or to Cavalry. A unit using Assault Movement which uses all its MF to move beneath Wire (B26.4), or which breaks, or becomes berserk, due to Defensive First Fire is no longer considered using Assault Movement and is subject to the -1 FFNAM DRM for the remainder of its MPh. Otherwise, once declared, Assault Movement cannot be voluntarily voided.

EX: [1] A crew moving ≥ two hexes into a woods hex and subject to First Fire has a total TEM of 0 ( +1 for woods and -1 for FFNAM). [2] A SMC using Assault Movement to move one hex into Open Ground has a total TEM of -1 for incoming First Fire. [3] A HS Assault Moving behind a hedge in Open Ground receives a +1 TEM (+1 for hedge), but a unit moving behind a hedge in Open Ground without Assault Movement receives a 0 DRM to incoming First Fire ( +1 for hedge, and -1 for FFNAM) [4] A squad moving one hex uphill into woods has a TEM of 0 ( +1 for woods, and -1 for FFNAM due to using all its MF). If the same unit is accompanied by a leader, giving it six MF, the TEM is +1 because it can claim (if it was declared) Assault Movement. [5] PRC abandoning an AFV in Open Ground (D5.41) have a TEM of 0 (+1 for being beneath an AFV and -1 for FFNAM).

       A4.61 & A12.14-.141

4.62 HAZARDOUS MOVEMENT: Certain activities are so dangerous that they automatically incur a -2 IFT DRM to any attacks against units so engaged regardless of fire phase until they are pinned (if subject to Pin results). Neither FFMO nor FFNAM apply to shots affected by Hazardous Movement; however, Hazardous Movement is cumulative with all other terrain DRM. Hazardous Movement acts include: pushing a Gun; Flame, roadblock, or rubble Clearance; descending paratroops; Fording; preparing Set DC; Climbing; and sewer movement. Hazardous Movement never applies to vehicles (but does apply to PRC Survival; D5.6, D6.9).

       A4.62, A23.7, B8.3, B21.41, B23.41, B24.7 & C10.3


4.63 DASH: Infantry may declare a Dash through a road Location if it declares a Dash move to a particular location prior to moving, and then moves from a non-Open Ground Location on one side of the road directly into the road and then directly into a non-Open Ground Location on the other side of the road provided the normal MF expenditure for this two-hex move is ≤ the unit's available MF. [errata included]  For purposes of determining the legality of a Dash move, any Location out of the LOS of a firer is also considered a non-Open Ground Location. The Dashing unit may not have expended any MF prior to the Dash [EXC: SMOKE grenade placement attempt; 24.1], may expend no MF in the road or the Dashed-to location beyond the minimum required to enter, and must end its MPh in the non-Open Ground Location it Dashed to (unless it becomes berserk, pinned, broken or wounded in the road Location, or otherwise unable to enter the Dashed-to Location, in which case Dash benefits immediately cease). All non-ordnance Defensive First Fire vs a Dashing unit in the road Location is considered Area Fire except for Fire Lanes and pre-existing Residual FP, but FFMO/FFNAM DRM apply normally. A weapon with a specified CA may not fire on a Dashing unit in the road Location if it must change its CA to do so. An ordnance weapon that can fire on the Dashing unit in the road Location must use the Case J To Hit DRM (Cases J3 and J4 do not apply in the road Location). If blocked from entering a non-Open Ground Location by a concealed unit therein (12.15), the unit is considered to have expended the additional MF used in entering the non-Open Ground Location in the road Location instead, where it ends its MPh and is again subject to possible Defensive First Fire—this time without the applicable Dash penalties to the firer.

Because the existence of an Open Ground Location can be dependent on the LOS of any potential firer into that Location, it is possible that a declared Dash might not qualify as such vs one or more DEFENDING units. In this case, Dash First-Fire penalties may apply to some DEFENDERS but not to others. Once a Dash is declared, no other movement/MF-expenditure options are available to the Dashing unit and Armored Assault (D9.31) is NA.

EX: The 4-6-7 has declared a Dash to 4AA7, thus halving the FP of the 4-4-7 in Y9 which fires on it in BB7. However, a 6-2-8 hidden in CC6 now drops its HIP to fire on the 4-6-7 in BB7 or AA7. The halving FP of a Dash does not apply to the 6-2-8 because AA7 is Open Ground to it. Even if the 4-4-7 were to fire after the 6-2-8, its FP would still be halved because AA7 and CC8 are not Open Ground Locations vs fire from Y9. Even if AA7 were a building hex, an attack by the 6-2-8 vs AA7 would not be halved because the 4-6-7 is Dashing only in BB7—not in the hex it is moving to. None of this would change if the road ended in BB7, or if there were another road running from AA7 to CC8.

EX: Assume AA7 were a building hex and that a leader was Dashing with the 4-6-7. If the leader broke in BB7, the 4-6-7 could declare Double Time and continue Dashing into AA7. If for any reason the 4-6-7 did not have enough MF to enter AA7, it would be stuck in BB7 without Dash benefits.[errata included]

       A4.12, A4.2 & 4.63

       A4.63 & C3.71

4.7 ADVANCE PHASE: Infantry units which are neither broken, pinned, TI, nor marked with a CC counter may use the APh to move one hex horizontally or vertically (to a different ADJACENT building level Location of the same hex) but not both. A unit may not change both its Location within a hex and also the hex it is in during the same APh although it could change both elevation and hex in an APh by advancing to an adjacent hex of different elevation such as a hill or Depression. The one hex advance may even be from inside an entrenchment to inside another in an Accessible hex (even if on different levels). A unit's IPC is unchanged during the APh except as restricted by Difficult Terrain (4.72).

       A4.7 & A12.14

4.71 vs AN AFV: An Infantry advance into a Location containing an enemy AFV is contingent on the unit first passing a PAATC (11.6).

4.72 vs DIFFICULT TERRAIN: An advance into any hex whose MF cost (excluding SMOKE) is ≥ four MF or all of a unit's available non-Double Time MF allotment (whichever is less) may not be made if the unit is already CX [EXC: Climbing, B11.432; Deep Stream Entry, B20.43]; otherwise it may advance but becomes CX in the process. In no case may a unit advance if it retains no MF after deducting for portage costs.

EX: A Russian squad carrying five PP has only two MF and therefore must become CX to advance into a hex requiring two MF to enter during the MPh (unless it is accompanied by a leader who adds two MF and one IPC to the squad; thereby leaving it with five MF).

       A4.72 & A11.21

       A4.72 & A12.11

4.8 TEMPORARILY IMMOBILIZED (TI): TI status is incurred by Infantry engaged in various tasks requiring prolonged effort throughout the Player Turn. When a unit is affected by TI status it is marked by placing a TI counter on top of it, which is removed at the end of its CCPh (or if the unit breaks). A TI unit may not move, advance, fire, or perform other labor tasks anytime during its Player Turn. If engaged in CC, it must add +1 to any CC attack DR it is involved in (limit of one per attack), and subtract one from any CC attack DR made against it (A.5).

EX: If two TI squads combine to make a CC attack, there is a +1 DRM to that attack. If two TI units and a non-TI unit are attacked together in CC, the -1 DRM for TI status applies only to the TI units; the DR is not modified for the non-TI unit.

       A4.8, A12.152, & D9.31

       A4.8 & A11.2