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Advanced Squad Leader Rulebook Updated and Erraticized


       A7. & B30.

7.1 Fire attacks are the main process by which a unit attacks enemy units. Fire attacks can occur in the PFPh and AFPh by the ATTACKER and in the MPh and the DFPh by the DEFENDER, but no unit can fire its inherent FP/SW/Gun in more than one fire phase (A.15) per Player Turn. Otherwise, players may fire all, some, or none of their units in any applicable fire phase.

7.2 FIREPOWER MODIFIERS: The FP factor of an attacking unit can be doubled, tripled, and/or halved due to a variety of circumstances. Fractions of halved FP factors are not dropped or rounded off; they are retained and subject to further modification, or added to the fractional FP factors of other units involved in the same attack. FP modifiers are cumulative; an attacker's FP can be both doubled and halved (with the net result that it retains its normal FP), and/or it can be halved and then halved again several times.

7.21 POINT BLANK FIRE (PBF): The Small-Arms/MG/ATR/IFE FP of an attacking unit is doubled while either ADJACENT to its target or adjacent to and either within one level of or higher than its target.8 If adjacent but without a LOS to it (such as units IN non-connecting gully hexes 12AA5 and BB4) no attack can be made. On those rare instances when fire attacks are allowed vs units in the same Location as the attacker or vs PRC in the same hex (7.211), the FP of the attacking unit is tripled (hereafter referred to as TPBF). As IFT attacks are not allowed by units in Melee, such occurrences vs non-PRC are usually limited to instances in which Infantry are allowed to enter an enemy-occupied Location during the MPh (4.14). Ordnance weapons do not double their FP for PBF, but may have a greater chance of scoring a CH(C3.7).

7.211 TPBF vs PRC: Any PRC not BU in a CT AFV which are in an enemy-occupied hex are subject to TPBF attacks from enemy units in that Location or any higher Location in that hex, regardless of whether or not the PRC disembark (see also D6.5). Halftrack Passengers and OT AFV crews are subject to such an attack even if not CE, but receive the +2 CE DRM (D5.31). The Moving units [EXC: BU PRC] may attack first as part of an OVR or in turn during their AFPh with both Area and TPBF if they are able to. Any survivors are not considered held in Melee until after the CCPh (PRC of Mobile vehicles are never held in Melee; 11.71) and are marked with a CC counter once the vehicle ends its MPh in that Location and are therefore able to rout away in the RtPh.

7.212 TARGET SELECTION LIMITS: A unit does not have the freedom to attack units in other Locations while its own Location is occupied by a Known enemy unit (even if disrupted) unless the only known enemy unit in its Location is an unarmed, unarmored vehicle. [errata included] Whenever a unit is eligible for TPBF vs Known enemy units, it can attack only those units. Spotters (C9.3) are similarly limited, but Observers (C1.6) are not.

       A7.212 & A10.53

       A7.212, 7.35, & A23.7

EX: As long as the squad and the halftrack are in the same Location (even if in Bypass), neither can fire outside of that Location. The squad can attack the PRC with TPBF but the PRC, being BU, cannot attack back. If the squad were in an upper-level Location of the hex, it still could attack only its own Location or that of the halftrack. The upper-level squad would still attack the PRC with TPBF, but now the Passengers could attack back (D6.61) although only with PBF (if within one level), not TPBF; if CE, the HT (and its Passengers) could fire outside its Location. If the squad were in an upper-level Location and the halftrack were instead a BU CT AFV, then neither would be restricted by the other.

7.22 LONG RANGE FIRE: A unit may attack beyond its Normal Range at a distance up to and including double that range [EXC: ATR, MOL, DC, Ordnance and some FT], but it does so at half FP.

7.23 AREA FIRE: The FP of an attacking unit is halved if the target is concealed or for any application of the Area Fire penalty [EXC: MOL; ordnance; C.4], and is halved again for each additional applicable use.

7.24 AFPh FIRE:9 The Small-Arms/MG/ATR/TFE FP of an attacking unit is halved if the attack occurs in the AFPh—even if the firing unit did not move in that Player Turn—unless it is using Opportunity Fire, MOL, FT, and DC are not halved (see C.4 for Ordnance).

7.25 OPPORTUNITY FIRE: Any Good Order Infantry/Cavalry which has not yet fired or become TI during that Player Turn may be placed beneath a Bounding Fire counter during its PFPh. Such placement removes any concealment status it may have had if it is in LOS within 16 hexes of a Good Order enemy Ground unit (12.14). Such a unit cannot fire during the PFPh or move during the MPh, but if still unbroken (unpinned, in the case of FT/DC/MOL) may fire during the AFPh without the penalty of AFPh Fire (7.24). Once a unit Opportunity Fires and exhausts its Multiple ROF, flip its Bounding Fire marker over to the Prep Fire side. An Opportunity Firer is the only unit that can use a Multiple ROF or Intensive Fire during the AFPh.10 Ordnance can use Opportunity Fire only if fired by Infantry, and cannot change its CA until actually resolving its To Hit attempt during the AFPh when it would be subject to applicable Case A To Hit DRM.

7.26 MISCELLANEOUS: Several other relatively rare circumstances can serve to modify FP and are listed beneath the IFT and in their respective rule sections.

7.3 RESOLUTION: Fire attacks are resolved by checking to see if any FP modifiers alter the FP of each attacking unit and then adding the adjusted FP factors of all units attacking the same target (see 7.4-.5) to determine the total FP strength of the attack. Make a DR and, after adding any applicable DRM as listed on the IFT DRM chart or in the appropriate rules section, cross-index the adjusted DR with the applicable FP column of the IFT to determine the results of the attack. [errata included]  Each applicable entry on the IFT DRM chart is cumulative (A.17) and is applied only once per attack, unless indicated otherwise. [errata included]  The attacker uses the rightmost column of the IFT whose listed FP (in bold type) does not exceed the total adjusted FP of the attack. Any excess FP factors have no effect [EXC: Heavy Payloads; C.7]. The results vs Personnel targets are applied as follows:

7.301 #KIA: At least as many target units in each specifically targeted Location (e.g., Spraying Fire or Canister, but not Area Target Type, attacks) as the number indicated (#) are eliminated (as determined by Random Selection); all remaining target units are automatically broken. Units which cannot be broken (e.g., berserk/heroic/broken/unarmed) suffer Casualty Reduction instead. The number of units eliminated can exceed the number specified if Random Selection results in a tie for the last unit to be eliminated, but in no case are more units affected than are subject to that attack.

       A.9 & A7.301

7.302 K/#: At least one target unit suffers Casualty Reduction in each specifically targeted Location and all other target units (including any just-Reduced HS) must take a MC, adding the number indicated (#) to the MC DR. Random Selection is used to determine which of multiple targets suffer Casualty Reduction. Casualty Reduction eliminates any HS or crew [EXC: Recall; D5.341], and wounds any SMC it applies to (the wound may become an outright elimination, depending on the Wound Severity dr; 17.11). A squad is Reduced to a HS with the same broken/non-broken status of the squad it was Reduced from.

7.303 NMC: Each target unit must attempt to pass a Morale Check by making a DR ≤ the Morale Level of the unit, best leaders first; those which fail are usually broken. See 10.3.

7.304 #MC (1,2,3, or 4): Same as NMC but the # is added to the MC DR.

7.305 PTC: A "PTC" result forces an unbroken Personnel target to take a NTC; those which fail are pinned—not broken. Broken units never take Pin TC, although they can become pinned during Interdiction (10.53) by passing a MC with the highest DR possible (7.8). See 7.82-.821 for Pin effects vs vehicle and PRC.

       A7.305 & A7.8

7.306 —: No Effect

EX: A FG of two 4-6-7 squads, a MMG, and a 9-2 leader Prep Fires at three squads and a leader seven hexes away in Open Ground. The FP of the two squads is halved due to Long Range Fire, leaving the FG with a total of nine FP factors. The Original IFT DR is an 8 which is modified by -2 for the leader's direction of fire, resulting in a FINAL DR of 6. A 6 DR on the 8 FP column of the IFT results in a 1MC to each of the four defending units, leader checking first.

7.307 vs ARMORED TARGETS: Small Arms and non-ordnance attacks [EXC: FT, DC, MOL, ATMM] have no effect vs armored targets but may leave Residual FP. Any Vulnerable PRC in or on such vehicles are affected normally as Personnel targets [see Stun (D5.34), Recall (D5.341), Unprotected Crews (D5.311), and Bailing Out (D6.24)].

7.308 vs UNARMORED VEHICLES: All non-ordnance Direct Fire attacks vs unarmored vehicles/horse counters are resolved on the  ★ Vehicle line of the IFT using the same IFT DR (after any applicable modification) for any Personnel target in the same Location. Unless using Defensive First Fire, non-ordnance attacks vs unarmored vehicles/horses affect all occupants of the Target Location including Infantry and other vehicles/horses which are present in the same Location [EXC: a vehicle in Bypass and out of the firer's LOS cannot be affected, nor can more vehicle/horse counters be affected by a DR than the highest KIA# of that column as randomly determined (e.g., a 6, 8 or 12 FP attack vs the Vehicle Line could affect no more than three vehicles; a 2 or 4 FP attack could affect only two vehicles; a 1 FP attack could affect only one vehicle)]. If that Final DR is < the Kill Number listed for the IFT FP column used, the vehicle is eliminated [EXC: Unlikely Kill; 7.309]; if it equals the Kill Number, the vehicle is immobilized [EXC: if HD the vehicle is unaffected by an Immobilization result]{J8}; if the Final DR is ≤ half of the Kill Number, the vehicle is eliminated as a burning wreck and all of its PRC are eliminated. Otherwise, the PRC of an eliminated vehicle must check for survival (D5.6). The surviving PRC of an eliminated vehicle are not subject to further effects from that attack. However, the Vulnerable PRC of a vehicle that has not been eliminated may still be subject to a Collateral Attack (D.8).

EX: A 4-4-7 squad, an 8-0 leader, and a MMG form a FG during the PFPh to attack a shellhole hex containing a squad and a truck that is transporting a HS Passenger. The Original IFT DR is a 7. The 8 FP attack is resolved against the truck with no DRM because the TEM of a shellhole applies only to Infantry. The Final DR of 7 immobilizes the truck, and the HS Passenger suffers a 1MC in the General Collateral Attack. In addition, the squad suffers a NMC because the shellhole +1 TEM has adjusted the IFT DR to an 8. If the Original DR had been a 3, the truck would have been turned into a burning wreck, eliminating the HS Passenger, with a 2MC to the squad in the shellhole. If the Original DR had been a 6, the truck would have been eliminated and its HS Passenger would have had to pass a Survival Check to not be eliminated (and if it passed it would be otherwise unaffected by this attack). The squad would have suffered a 1MC.

7.309 UNLIKELY KILL: Any Original 2 IFT resolution DR on the ★ Vehicle line of the IFT always yields the possibility of damage even if applicable DRM raise the Final DR above the indicated Kill Number for that FP column. In such a case, the firer can make a subsequent dr even if the Original 2 DR would have resulted in an elimination or Immobilization. On a dr of 1 the vehicle becomes a burning wreck; on a dr of 2 it is eliminated; on a dr of 3 it is immobilized (unless HD); on a dr of 4-6 (3-6 if HD) there is no effect. However, regardless of the subsequent dr, if the Original 2 DR would have resulted in elimination or Immobilization that result occurs instead, unless cancelled by a better (i.e., elimination or burning) result from the subsequent dr.

7.31 A target may be attacked any number of times during a fire phase (depending on the type and phase of the attack), but when a result is called for by the IFT it is resolved prior to making any other attack on that target.

7.32 A player need not predesignate attacks; i.e., he may witness the outcome of each attack before committing other units to fire.

7.33 MULTIPLE TARGETS: A Personnel unit may not split its inherent FP between different targets [EXC: 7.34], but a squad can fire one or two of its SW separately at different targets provided it does so in the same fire phase (7.1). A squad which has fired its inherent FP but not yet used its SW (or the SWs final shot in the case of Defensive First Fire) should be marked with the proper Prep Fire/First Fire/Final Fire counter, but with the SW on top of that counter unrestrained by it.

7.34 SQUAD SPRAYING FIRE: Spraying Fire is limited to those squads with an inherent LMG, multiple SMG, and/or superior tactical training. Any squad with a Spraying Fire option is identified by the underscore beneath the Range portion of its Strength Factor. Squad Spraying Fire is identical to MG Spraying Fire (9.5) except that it is limited to a maximum range of three hexes. If Spraying Fire at three hex range exceeds the Normal Range of the unit, any target hex beyond Normal Range would halve the FP again as Long Range Fire.

7.34 EX: The 6-2-8 squad in 2D6 can trace a LOS to each of hexes C5 and C4 so it attacks both hexes with Area Fire. Note, however, that C5 is attacked with three FP while C4 is at Long Range so the FP must be halved again and attacks with only 1½ FP plus a +1 TEM for the woods. So an Original DR of 3 would result in a 1MC vs C5 and a NMC vs C4.

       A7.34 & A7.36

7.35 SW USAGE: All weapons on ½" counters are SW [EXC: Goliath] and must be possessed by an unbroken Personnel unit in order to fire. Usage limitations for each type of SW are listed on the SW Chart. However, two general rules apply to all SW:

       A7.35 & A7.351

       A7.35 & C13.8

       A7.212, 7.35, & A23.7

7.351 A squad may fire any one SW/Gun without the squad losing its inherent FP; this inherent FP can be added to the SW attack in the case of a MG, or used for a separate attack in the same fire phase. A squad may never fire more than two SW in the same fire phase although it may fire two different types. A squad using two SW loses its inherent FP until the CCPh [EXC: 7.353].

       A7.35 & A7.351

7.352 A crew/HS/SMC that fires any SW/Gun loses its inherent FP until attacked/attacking in CC or the end of that Player Turn (whichever comes first) [EXC: 7.353].

7.353 In both of the above cases, Subsequent First Fire (8.3), FPF (8.31), and Final Fire (8.4) vs adjacent units retain halved inherent FP for those attacks (regardless of how they were used during First Fire)—although use of full SW/Gun capability during such attacks can negate inherent FP in the normal manner. See the 8.41 EX.

7.36 ASSAULT FIRE: Assault Fire is restricted to squads armed primarily with SMG/semi-automatic rifles, as well as appropriate training in their use. Such squads are identified by the underscoring of their FP factor. Assault Fire capability allows any squad using its inherent FP during the AFPh to add one FP to its Small Arms Fire attack after all modification to the squad's inherent FP; any fraction in its FP is then rounded up. The Assault Fire bonus is not applicable to Opportunity Fire or Long Range Fire, but is still applicable to pinned-firers/Spraying-Fire in the AFPh.

EX: A 6-6-6 squad firing at a target four hexes away in the AFPh has four FP (3 [AFPh Fire] +1 = 4). Two 5-4-8 firing during the AFPh at an ADJACENT concealed target have eight FP ([5 [FP] X 2 [PBF] = 10] / 2 [AFPh] = 5 / 2 [Concealed Target] = 2 ½ + 1 [Assault Fire] = 3 ½ = 4 [FRU] X 2 [two squads] = 8).

       A7.34 & A7.36

*7.37 INCREMENTAL IFT (IIFT): In addition to the standard IFT (A.7), an Incremental IFT is included for optional use. The IIFT is used exactly as the standard IFT except as indicated below.10A

7.371 COLUMN SHIFTS: Column shifts (for Cowering, Fire Lane, Barrage FP, HEAT HE Equivalency, etc.) always use "standard" IFT columns (i.e., 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 30, 36), which are marked on the IIFT with a colored background (as opposed to the "incremental" columns which are not so marked). When a one-column shift is required, an attack that would otherwise have used a "standard" IFT column simply shifts to the next-lower-FP "standard" column; an attack that otherwise would have used an "incremental" column first shifts to the next-lower-FP "standard" column, then shifts again to the next-lower-FP "standard" column. A two-column shift follows these same principles, but drops yet again to the next-lower-FP "standard" column.

EX: A 4FP attack that Cowers (7.9) shifts to, and is resolved on, the 2FP "standard" column (or the 1FP "standard" column if Inexperienced Personnel were involved [19.33]). A 5FP attack that Cowers is resolved in the same manner, but it first shifts to the 4FP (i.e., next-lower-FP) "standard" column, and then to the 2FP "standard" column where it is resolved (unless Inexperienced Personnel were involved). A 7FP German HMG would place a 4FP Firelane assuming it did not cower.

Similarly, 150mm OBA, which is normally resolved on the 30FP "standard" column, shifts to the 24FP "standard" column when used as Barrage (E12.5). Likewise, 160mm through 190mm OBA would be resolved on the 24FP "standard" column if used as Barrage. Additionally, resolution of 75mm HE uses the 14FP "incremental" column, but its HEAT HE Equivalency (C8.31) would be resolved on the 8FP "standard" column.

7.372 FIREPOWER MODIFIERS: Doubling, halving and such of FP (e.g., PBF, Area Fire, etc.) is based upon the actual FP (both before and after increasing/decreasing it), regardless of whether the columns are "standard" or "incremental" [EXC: Residual FP (8.2) uses the highest-FP counter that is ≤ ½ the FP used in the attack]. DRM are applied normally, regardless of column.

EX: A 5FP attack is resolved on the 10FP column if using PBF, or on the 2½FP column if firing at Long Range; in the first case it would leave 4 Residual FP, in the second it would leave 1 Residual FP.

An HE Concentration of 105mm OBA is resolved on the 21FP column, or on the 10FP column (½ X 21 = 10[FRD]) if resolved vs Marsh (B16.31). A Barrage of 105mm OBA would be resolved on the 16FP "standard" column or on the 8FP column vs Marsh. Harassing Fire 105mm OBA is resolved on the 7FP column (1/3 X 21 = 7) or on the 3½ FP column vs Marsh. A CH with 105mm OBA (whether HE Concentration, Barrage, or Harassing Fire) would involve 42FP (C3.75) and would be resolved on the 36FP column with no modifiers (since 42FP is not a whole multiple of 8FP in excess of 36 [C.7]), or on the 21FP column vs Marsh.

7.4 TARGET DETERMINATION: Except during Defensive First Fire (8.1), all the Personnel-units/unarmored-vehicles/Vulnerable-PRC in the same Location are considered targets of fire that does not have to specify a particular target, with the outcome of such fire affecting all those enemy (or Melee) units in the target Location (except those to which the LOF is blocked, such as being entrenched behind a wall [B9.21], Area Target Type [C3.33], or non-Crest units in a Depression [B20.92]). Although all targets are affected by the results of such fire combat, some may escape harm entirely while others are eliminated, broken, pinned, or affected by Heat of Battle (15.). A MC/PTC result requires all target units to take an independent MC/TC with a separate DR for each unit. A unit/weapon may purposely attack a friendly unit(s) only if specifically allowed to by the rules governing a particular circumstance (e.g., Prisoners, Melee, OBA); see C3.33 for Area Target Type.


       A7.4 & A22.612

       A7.4 & A11.15

       A7.4 & A20.4

       A7.4 & C3.3

       A7.4 & D5.4

       A7.4 & E7.41

7.5 FIRE GROUP (FG): Two or more units/weapons joining together to make a combined fire attack are a FG. Two SMC manning the same SW are not a FG as they are considered one combined firing unit. A FG may consist of units from more than one Location only if each participating unit occupies a Location ADJACENT to another participating unit of the same FG. It is possible to have a FG composed of a virtually unlimited string of ADJACENT Locations; provided each Location in the FG contains a Personnel unit that is participating in the attack. A leader alone in a Location cannot be a link in a FG (unless he is Heroic or firing a SW) because each Location of a FG must participate in the attack and a leader normally has no attack capability. Units inside a pillbox may not form a FG with units outside the pillbox.

7.51 VEHICLES/ORDNANCE: Vehicles/Passengers/Riders may be part of a FG within certain restrictions; see D6.64. Vehicles in Bypass in the same hex without a LOS to each other may not form a FG. Ordnance-weapons/Canister/lFE may not form a FG with any other unit/weapon, including other weapons of the same unit [EXC: vehicular MG/IFE; D3.5]; e.g., a tank may not combine its ordnance MA and MG armament into a single attack.

7.52 All members of a FG must be able to trace a LOS to the target. Should the LOS of any FG member be subject to a Hindrance/TEM, the worst possible case applies to all members of the FG (A.5).  Should any member of the FG incur a detrimental DRM, it applies to the entire FG (cumulative as per A7.3). [errata included] For this reason, it is often wise to break up such a FG and have its component parts attack separately. A multi-Location FG which discovers that one or more of its units' LOS is blocked forfeits the participation of only those units whose LOS was blocked. The FG's other units with a valid LOS must still attack the same target (unless it was eliminated by a previous attack, in which case their attack is forfeit and they are marked with an appropriate fire phase counter) after resolving the blocked firer's DR (6.11), but as a smaller FG or as separate attacks.

       A.5 & A7.52


7.53 FIRE DIRECTION: A single leader cannot direct more than one weapon/unit per phase unless they are part of the same FG. Hence a squad that elects to use its inherent FP in a different attack than that of the MG it is manning does not get the leadership benefit if given to the MG instead. However, a leader can direct the fire of a MG as many times as the MG can fire, even if he also directed other units as part of a FG in the MG's previous attack. Leader direction used during Defensive First Fire can be used again in Subsequent First Fire, FPF, or Final Fire, but again only for one firing unit/SW or FG—and that unit/SW/FG can only include firers he directed during First Fire; if forming a new FG or using a different SW during that Player Turn, the leader cannot direct its fire (even during FPF). Similarly, a leader may not affect more than one To Hit attempt per fire phase (except for a multiple ROF weapon) regardless of the number of SW the firing unit is eligible to fire. See also 9.4, 10.7, and D6.65.

       A7.53 & D6.6

7.531 A leader may use his leadership DRM (10.7) to modify the IFT DR of any one attacking unit or FG per Player Turn, provided all firing units of the FG are in the same Location. A leadership DRM may be employed with a multihex/Location FG only if a leader directing that attack is present in every Location; the leadership DRM in effect is that of the lowest-quality participating leader. A Leader affects the To Hit DR of an ordnance SW—not the effects of those hits on the IFT or AFV To Kill Table, nor the chance of a weapon malfunction. A Leader directing fire is treated as if he were firing marked with an appropriate Fire Counter [errata included].


7.54 BERSERK: A berserk unit may never be part of a multi-Location FG.

7.55 MANDATORY FG: If Good Order units/weapons in the same Location are going to fire at the same target (i.e., at both the same Location and the same unit and the same "simultaneous" [8.1] MF/MP expenditure; see D3.5) during the same phase they must form a FG [EXC: Fire Lane; 9.22]; they may not attack separately except with ordnance/FT/DC or the subsequent shots of multiple ROF weapons (9.2).


7.6 TEM & LOS HINDRANCES: The terrain of the target hex/Location often alters the effectiveness of Fire Attacks by adding a DRM to the IFT DR. The DRM applicable to each terrain type is listed on the TEM column of the Terrain Chart and in the applicable rule section. TEM are generally cumulative, although there are many exceptions. Any LOS Hindrance (6.7) between the target and firer also lessens the effectiveness of Fire attacks by adding a Hindrance DRM to the IFT DR.

7.7 ENCIRCLEMENT: Any non-Aerial Infantry, or Vulnerable PRC of an Immobile vehicle, fired upon consecutively during the same PFPh, DFPh (not MPh), or AFPh by two or more non-Aerial units using their inherent-FP/SW/ordnance at ≤ Normal Range (1.22, 10.532) is subject to possible Encirclement [EXC: pillbox; B30.32]. The attack(s) constituting an Encirclement must be resolved consecutively; if a player fires at a different target in the interim, he cannot use previous attacks as the basis for his claim to Encirclement. Encirclement occurs if the firer's LOS enters the target Location either: a) through opposite hexspines; b) with exactly three target-hex vertices between them in both clockwise and counter clockwise directions; or c) through any three non-contiguous hexsides. An Encirclement can also be created by a LOF from both the Location directly above and below it in a building hex. To be considered valid fire, ordnance weapons must secure a hit on the target, and other firers must exert enough FP (taking the possibility of Cowering into account) to possibly inflict at least a NMC result on the target. A qualifying target Location is thereafter marked with an Encirclement counter and every non-berserk, non-heroic enemy/Melee Personnel unit therein suffers an immediate one level drop in morale to both the attack that sealed its Encirclement and any other attacks made against that Location as long as it is so marked. All fire by an Encircled unit is subject to a +1 DRM on the IFT (or To Hit DR if ordnance). The MF cost of the first Location entered (regardless of phase) by an Encircled unit is doubled (after all modification). Should other enemy units enter an Encirclement Location they are immediately Encircled. Regardless of the Encircler's subsequent actions, the Encircled counter remains on the Location to affect all enemy/Melee Infantry units, and Vulnerable PRC of an Immobile vehicle, in that Location until they all leave the Location (even if they all leave it only momentarily), become berserk/heroic, are eliminated, or are captured. Being Encircled has adverse effects on a unit's ability to avoid capture (20.21). A unit Encircled more than once does not suffer additional penalties for multiple Encirclement.



       A7.7, A10.62, F11.71 & F11.72

       A.18, A7.7, & A10.8

       A7.7 & A23.3

7.71 FG: The LOS of a FG may penetrate the target Location through more than one hexside; all such hexsides crossed count toward possible Encirclement. It is even possible for a single FG to cause Encirclement.

7.72 UPPER  LEVELS: Encirclement  also  applies  to  any  non-heroic/non-berserk unit in an upper level building Location that cannot trace a path free of an unbroken, armed, unconcealed enemy unit/Blaze to ground level through (or past, if Scaling; B23.424) Locations it could legally traverse if so inclined. This type of Encirclement is broken the instant such a path can be traced.

EX: If a unit in U2 fires on T3, T3 can be Encircled if the next attack(s) in that phase is from S5 (along the S4-T4 hexspine of T3), or through both the S4-T3 and T4-T3 hexsides. A four-hex FG in 3T3-U4-U5-T5 firing on T4 with enough FP to cause a MC or better result on an Original 2 DR automatically Encircles it.

7.8 PIN: Pinning (7.305) also occurs whenever any unit is attacked resulting in an IFT MC that is passed by rolling the highest DR possible that still results in a passed MC. Cavalry, vehicles, units in Water Obstacles, and units that are berserk, Heroic, Aerial, or Climbing are not subject to pinning [EXC: a Minimum Move (4.134) pins berserk/heroic Infantry, as might a PF check (C13.31); see G5.5 for Collapsed huts]. A unit is also pinned if it fails a PAATC (11.6; 12.41). Pinning affects broken units only during Interdiction (10.53), and even then only during the RtPh, so there is no need to place Pin counters on broken units. A pinned unit has its inherent FP halved for the remainder of that Player Turn (in addition to any other halving of its FP for other reasons) and may not move/advance farther during that Player Turn (although it may rout if later broken, even voluntarily). Place a Pin counter on top of the affected unit. The halved FP of a pinned unit in CC applies only to its attack, not to its defense. Pin effects are not cumulative; a unit suffering multiple Pin results has its FP halved only once, so an already-pinned unit does not take a NTC due to a "PTC" result on the IFT. Remove all Pin counters at the end of the current Player Turn or if the unit subsequently breaks/goes-berserk/Battle-Hardens/becomes-heroic (whichever comes first).

       A7.8 & A18.12

       A7.8 & A8.15

       A7.305 & A7.8

7.81 INFANTRY EFFECTS: Pinned Infantry fires MG/IFE/Canister as Area Fire, must add +2 to its To Hit DR (To Hit Case D), and cannot attack with a FT/MOL/DC, declare a Firelane, change a weapon's CA (9.21; C5.1-.12), or use Intensive Fire or a Multiple ROF (although it may use Subsequent First Fire/FPF; 8.3-.31).

       A7.81 & A9.2

       A7.81, A8.1, & A11.5

       A7.81 & G1.424

7.82 VEHICLE/CREW: A Pin result vs the CE Inherent crew of a CT AFV forces it to remain BU during that Player Turn, thus subjecting it to the Case I (BU) To Hit DRM. The Inherent crew of an OT AFV remains CE vs a Pin result, but during that Player Turn is subject to the Case D To Hit DRM and the halving of all MG/IFE/FT/Canister FP, as well as prohibiting it from using Intensive Fire and Multiple ROF. An Inherent crew that suffers a Pin result when attacked through an unarmored Target Facing (even if only hull or turret/upper superstructure) is subject to the same penalties as that of an OT AFV. A vehicle itself can never be pinned, nor can its Inherent crew; however, leave the Pin counter on the vehicle to show that the above penalties apply.

7.821 PASSENGERS/RIDERS: Pinned Passengers must BU if CE and are considered Pinned for all purposes, although they may continue to be transported by their vehicle and may even unload (D6.5) at their option, but then become pinned in the dismount Location. Pinned AFV Riders must Bail Out (D6.24).

7.83 MOVEMENT/ADVANCE: Pinned Infantry is not subject to any further DRM for FFNAM/FFMO during that Player Turn. However, if a pinned unit is subsequently broken during Defensive First Fire, it loses its pinned status and is subject to FFNAM/FFMO DRM (if applicable) for further Defensive First Fire attacks against it in its MPh (keeping in mind that a broken unit's MPh ends as soon as another unit moves11). A pinned unit [EXC: PRC] is considered a non-moving unit for purposes of all subsequent ordnance To Hit attempts during that Player Turn. A unit that is pinned while moving through an entrenchment Location without actually having paid the one MF necessary to enter that entrenchment is not considered in it, and cannot enter it while pinned.

EX: A squad uses Non-Assault Movement to enter an Open Ground hex and is attacked by Defensive First Fire with a -2 FFMO/FFNAM DRM, resulting in it being pinned. Another defending unit now First Fires on it but without the -2 DRM because the unit is pinned. However, this attack breaks the squad and removes its pinned status. If another unit First Fires on it in its present MPh it will again be subject to the -2 DRM. However, as soon as another unit is moved, the broken unit's MPh is over and it is no longer subject to FFMO/FFNAM DRM.

7.831 LEADERS: A moving leader who becomes pinned does not force any Infantry in the same moving stack to take a LLTC, but does cancel the two MF (if not already used; see 4.12) and/or portage (4.42) bonus that it might otherwise have given to other Infantry in the same moving stack. A pinned leader can neither direct an attack nor use Voluntary Rout (10.711; although it may still voluntarily break [10.41] to rout)— nor can a pinned leader aid other units' MC/TC (including the use of a Commissar's increased Morale Level; 25.221).

7.9 COWERING: IFT attacks are adversely affected by any IFT resolution DR that results in Original "Doubles" unless a leader directs that attack. The penalty for rolling Doubles without leadership direction is that the attack is resolved on the next lower column of the IFT. An attack on the lowest column which cowers is reduced to no effect at all, although a malfunction result can still occur. In addition, any unit that cowers (as well as all of its SW regardless of whether it was using its inherent FP) is automatically marked with a Final or Prep Fire counter as appropriate. Cowering affects all fire except that from a SMC, berserk or Fanatic unit, Fire Lane, IFE, Canister, Aircraft, British Elite and First Line units, Finns [EXC: Conscripts (25.7)], Sniper, ordnance, OBA, or any form of vehicular fire. Cowering FP penalties are doubled (i.e., resolved two columns lower on the IFT) for an attack by Inexperienced (19.33) Personnel (even in conjunction with other troops). Cowering does not affect CC or DC resolution (including Reaction Fire; D7.2). If a FG cowers, Random Selection is used to determine the unit(s) (and its SW) that becomes marked with a Prep or Final Fire counter.


       A7.9, A8.2 & A9.22