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Advanced Squad Leader Rulebook Updated and Erraticized

Navigation: Chapter A. Infantry & Basic Game Rules

A9 Machine Guns & SW Malfunction

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[A LMG counter represents a weapon additional to the inherent complement of such weapons present in a squad and accounted for by that squad's FP. The inherent LMG of a squad counter is not subject to any of the following rules, nor can it ever be turned into a LMG counter.]

9.1 COUNTERS: A ½" MG counter is a SW and is dependent on Personnel to portage and fire it. Each SW MG has a two-number hyphenated Strength Factor; the number on the left is its FP and the number on the right is its Normal Range as measured in hexes. See also 4.4, 9.2, and 9.7-.72.

9.11 MMC USAGE: A squad may fire any one SW MG at no cost to its own Inherent FP, or any two SW MG at their normal MG FP effect at the cost of forfeiting its own Inherent FP for the current and any remaining fire phases in that Player Turn [EXC: 7.353]. Any other MMC may fire only one SW MG (regardless of type) with full FP, but in so doing forfeits its Inherent FP for any remaining fire phases in that Player Turn [EXC: 7.353].

9.12 SMC USAGE: Unless otherwise prohibited, a single leader may fire any one SW MG as Area Fire, while two SMC stacked together may fire any one SW MG counter at full FP. If a leader fires/uses a SW-MG/any-other-SW (either singly or in combination with another SMC), he loses any leadership DRM he may have otherwise exerted during that fire phase, but the SW is exempt from Cowering. See 15.23 for Hero usage.

9.2 MULTIPLE ROF: Each SW (or vehicular MA) MG has a number encased in a square to denote its Multiple ROF, and therefore may conceivably fire many times each Player Turn (whether separately or as part of a FG), depending on how long its operator engages each target. This time factor is abstractly represented by the Original colored dr of the MG's IFT-Resolution/TH-(9.6) DR. If that colored dr is ≤ the MG's applicable ROF, the MG retains its Multiple ROF and may be fired again during that phase (A.15). However, during the MPh a DEFENDER MG cannot fire at the same unit in the same Location more times than the number of MF/MP expended by the target in that Location (FRD, but a minimum of once per hex). Once a MG has lost its Multiple ROF, it is marked with an appropriate Prep, First or Final Fire counter. Each MG in a multiple-MG FG retains or loses its own Multiple ROF based on the Original colored dr of the FG IFT DR (e.g., if a FG with a MMG and a LMG rolls a colored 2 dr on its IFT DR, the LMG has exhausted its Multiple ROF but the MMG has not). See also 4.41 and 21.12-.13.

EX: The Russian MG in 1J5 Defensive First Fires with a -2 FFNAM/FFMO DRM on the squad and leader stack as they enter H6 from H7 at a cost of one MF. The result pins the leader, but the squad continues on into H5. Having retained Multiple ROF with a 1 on the Original colored dr of its IFT DR, the MG may fire again, but not on the pinned leader (unless it waits until Final Fire and is still not marked with a First Fire or Final Fire counter) because only one MF was expended in that hex. (If the pinned leader had expended two MF in entering H6 and thereby allowed another shot, the -2 FFNAM/ FFMO DRM would not apply to that second shot because the leader is now pinned; moreover, the MG would have to make its decision whether to continue firing at the pinned leader before the squad leaves the leader's hex, because thereafter the leader's MPh has ended and it is no longer subject to First Fire.) So the MG fires on the squad in H5 with a +2 DRM (-1 [FFNAM] +3 [TEM]) and breaks it while again rolling low enough on the colored dr of his IFT DR to retain its Multiple ROF. Because the now-broken squad expended two MF in entering H5, the MG may attack it once more (still with a -1 FFNAM DRM; 8.14) and does so—but this time loses its Multiple ROF and is marked with a First Fire counter. It cannot use Subsequent First Fire vs the broken squad because it has already fired on it twice and the unit had expended only two MF in its current Location. Should another unit move into the MG's CA (9.21) within a two-hex range, the MG could use Subsequent First Fire (and thus Sustained Fire; 9.3), but otherwise its attack opportunities are over for this Player Turn unless an enemy unit moves ADJACENT or into its current Location (see FPF; 8.31). The German MPh ends at this point, and the MG (not adjacent to an enemy unit) gets no Final Fire (8.4).

       A7.81 & A9.2

9.21 FIELD OF FIRE: Normally, a SW may fire in any direction with no detriment due to the facing of the counter. However, if a SW MMG/HMG in a woods/rubble/building hex fires and is entitled to another shot, it may continue to fire during that phase only inside the CA of the prior shot (which, unlike the CA of a Gun [C3.2], includes the MG's own Location regardless of the hexside [if any] crossed by the target unit entering that Location). If it fired up or down a stairwell within its same hex, its CA is defined vertically and subsequent shots during that phase (other than vs its own Location) are limited to the same direction up or down the staircase. If necessary, place a CA counter on the MG (or alternately two hexes away to relieve any congestion caused by stacking), pointing to the center hexspine of that CA as a reminder of its now-fixed CA. Remove the CA counter at the end of the current phase [EXC: a SW MMG/HMG with a fixed CA, and whose operator was pinned in the PFPh/MPh, retains that fixed CA until the end of the DFPh]. The restricted-CA principles of 9.21 also apply to SW of the INF, RCL and 20L ATR types.



9.22 FIRE LANE: Whenever the DEFENDER declares a Defensive First Fire attack with a Good Order SW MG that is manned by unpinned Infantry (even as ordnance or as part of a FG), he may also declare a Fire Lane with that MG if it is not already marked with a First/Final Fire counter and is firing within its Normal Range (but not using TPBF) and at a same-level (B.5) target. If he does declare a Fire Lane, he must place a First Fire counter on the MG and, after resolving that First Fire attack in the normal manner, must also place a Fire Lane Residual FP counter in one hex along a Hex Grain; that Hex Grain must include the MG's hex and its First Fire target hex, but he may place the Fire Lane counter in or beyond the latter hex [EXC: no Fire Lane is placed if the MG's manning Infantry Cowered, and/or used Subsequent-First-Fire (8.3-.31)/FPF, during that initial First Fire attack]. Fire Lane FG are NA; i.e., each MG must create a separate Fire Lane even if using the same Hex-Grain/IFT-DR as another. An illegally placed Fire Lane counter is removed, but the MG is still marked with a First Fire counter. Each Fire Lane Residual FP counter contains an ID letter to match the A-F ID letter of its MG counter, and should be placed so that the arrow points back along the Fire Lane Hex Grain to the firing MG.

A Fire Lane Residual FP counter exerts a unique form of Residual FP in its Location, and in every same-level (B.5) Location of the Fire Lane Hex Grain between that counter and the MG, that is within the MG's Normal Range and in the LOS of its manning Infantry (when tracing their LOS to the hex center dot). However, neither NVR (E11) nor any SMOKE/ brush/grain/marsh/FFE/LV-(E3.1)/DLV-(F11.6)/Dust-(F11.794)/hut-(G5.21) Hindrance affects LOS for Fire Lane placement/attack purposes. A Fire Lane's Residual FP is equal to the FP column to the left of the FP column normally used by that MG's FP [EXC: PBF doubles the reduced FP in the ADJACENT hex; Fire Lane Residual FP TPBF is NA (9.223)]. A MG which has established a Fire Lane may not fire again until the DFPh [EXC: if its Location is entered by an enemy unit; 9.223]; see 9.3.


       A7.9, A8.2 & A9.22

       A9.22 & A9.221

       A9.22 & A24.2

       A6.11 & A9.22

       A8.15, A9.22, & A9.5

9.221 ALTERNATE HEX GRAIN: A Fire Lane may also be declared along an Alternate Hex Grain, which is a string of connected hexes in which the Fire Lane's LOF (i.e., a line drawn between the first and last center dot) lies along a hexspine of the first hex. Whenever that LOF lies along a hexside, the Alternate Hex Grain includes the hex either to the left or to the right of that hexside. If that LOF lies along more than one hexside, the Alternate Hex Grain consistently includes the hexes on one side (either left or right). When placing a Fire Lane Residual FP counter along an Alternate Hex Grain, the DEFENDER must declare whether that Alternate Hex Grain will include the left- or right-side hexes, but must place the counter itself in a hex with a hexspine that points directly back to the MG.

A unit crossing a hexside to enter/exit a Location where an Alternate-Hex-Grain Fire Lane exerts Residual FP may be attacked by it as a Snap Shot, provided the hexside being crossed lies along the Fire Lane's LOF [EXC: the Snap Shot is NA if that Fire Lane has already attacked that unit in the Location it is exiting; the Snap Shot FP of a Fire Lane is not halved as Area Fire]. If the Defender opts for the Snap Shot, its target (including any element of a target stack) cannot be attacked again by that Fire Lane in the Location it is entering unless it expends further MF/MP (but regardless of any +/- change in DRM) therein. If he forgoes the Snap Shot, the unit will still be subject to attack per 9.22 if entering a Fire Lane Location.

EX: This Fire Lane, using the left Alternate Hex Grain, exerts four Residual FP in 21K8 (due to PBF) as well as two Residual FP in K7 and J6. (If it were using the right Alternate Hex Grain, it would exert four Residual FP in L7 and two Residual FP in K7 and K6, but any non-PRC unit attacked in K6 would receive wall TEM; 9.222). Neither Fire Lane could affect J5, because the LOS to the center dot of that hex's Level 0 Location is blocked by the K6-J6-K7 wall vertex (9.22; B9.1). A unit Assault Moving from K6 to J6 can, at the DEFENDER'S option, be attacked using two Residual FP either as a Fire Lane Snap Shot (with Wall TEM; 8.15) at the K6-J6 hexside, or as a normal Fire Lane attack (with a -1 FFMO DRM) in J6. The latter is the better attack, but if a stone building existed in J6— or an obstacle in K8 blocked the firer's LOS to J6—the Snap Shot would be a better choice. A unit that starts its MPh in J6 by moving to K6 can be attacked by the Fire Lane only as a Snap Shot; however, if it were already vulnerable to Defensive First Fire in J6 it would undergo a normal Fire Lane attack there (thus prohibiting the Snap Shot), unless no LOS existed from the MG to J6 (in which case the Snap Shot would occur as it crossed hexside J6-K6 regardless of whether or not it began its MPh in J6).

A9.22 & A9.221


       A9.221 & A9.222

9.222 RESIDUAL FP: Fire Lane Residual FP is treated as normal Residual FP except as stated otherwise. The Residual FP of a Fire Lane is never reduced by the effects of DRM (8.26). Because Fire Lane Residual FP is always traced from its source, the effects of Hindrance/hex-side/bridge DRM are resolved as DRM to the Residual FP attack [EXC: SMOKE/grain/brush/marsh/FFE/Heavy-(or denser)-Dust-(F11.794)/hut-(G5.21) Hindrances do not apply as DRM but do cancel FFMO; LV-(E3.1)/DLV-(F11.6) Hindrances do not apply as DRM]. No CX/leader/ hero DRM applies to a Fire Lane Residual FP attack. Fire Lane Residual FP attacks cannot cause the firer to Cower and need not be made if they could cause no effect. When a Fire Lane is placed due to a First Fire attack vs a unit using some form of Impulse movement (13.62; 25.232; D14.2; E11.2; E11.52), its Fire Lane Residual FP immediately attacks all other elements of that Impulse currently in any Location(s) where that Residual FP now exists.

Fire Lane Residual FP cannot be used to increase the size of Residual FP from another source. In hexes where Fire Lanes intersect, each Fire Lane Residual FP attack must be resolved separately (in an order chosen by the firer), unless the first eliminates all targets. If Residual FP from a source other than another Fire Lane exists in a Location of a Fire Lane, it must be resolved separately prior to the Fire Lane Residual FP.

9.222 EX: The units in 3X3 declare a First Fire attack against a target using Assault Movement in AA5, and state that the MMG will create a Fire Lane. After resolving the attack with 8 FP and a 0 DRM (+1 [grain Hindrance] -1 [leadership]), the DEFENDER places a 2 FP Fire Lane counter in BB5 thereby leaving two Fire Lane Residual FP in Z4, AA5, and BB5 (plus 4 FP in Y4). In addition, the squad's FP leaves one normal Residual FP in AA5 (8.21; 8.26). A unit subsequently using non-Assault in AA5 will be attacked first (9.222) by the one Residual FP with a -1 DRM (FFNAM) and then by the Fire Lane's two residual FP with a -1 DRM (FFNAM) but the 4-6-7 cannot Subsequent First Fire against it (9.223). If the 4-6-7 were CX the First Fire Attack would have a +1 DRM, reducing the squad's Residual FP to zero but not affecting the Fire Lane. If a +3 SMOKE were in X3 before/after the First Fire attack, the two Fire Lane Residual FP in BB5 would not be affected even though the SMOKE and Hindrance DRM from X3 to BB5 would total +6 (9.22; 24.8).

If the HMG declares both a First Fire attack against a target in BB5 and a Fire Lane, the latter must use the left Alternate Hex Grain because no other (Alternate) Hex Grain includes that firer's and target's hex. If the Fire Lane Residual FP counter is placed in EE6 it will leave four Residual FP in AA6, BBS, CC6 and EE6 (plus 8 FP in Z5)—even if the original target was concealed. A unit attacked by the four Fire Lane Residual FP in EE6 would receive a +1 wreck Hindrance DRM, while Infantry attacked in CC6 would receive a +1 wreck TEM. No Fire Lane Residual FP exists in DD5 because the 5-4-8's LOS to DDS's center dot is blocked by the woods in BBS. If the wreck were in DD5, its +1 Hindrance DRM would not apply vs a target in EE6 (D9.4). Since two Fire Lanes merge in BB5, both must be resolved unless the first eliminates all targets.

The existence of any obstacle(s) in Z5/Z6 would not prevent the HMG from establishing a Fire Lane to/past EE6 (assuming the LOF is not blocked), but would prohibit non-Snap-Shot Fire Lane Residual FP attacks in hexes that lack a LOS (as per 9.22) from Y6.


       A9.221 & A9.222

9.223 CANCELLATION: A MG's Fire Lane Residual FP counter is removed only if the MG malfunctions, its manning Infantry is broken/ pinned/eliminated, or at the end of the current MPh—whichever occurs first. The MG malfunctions whenever its Fire Lane Residual FP attack DR is also an Original Malfunction DR. A MG may cancel its Fire Lane in order to gain freedom to fire elsewhere (its manning Infantry may use Subsequent-First-Fire/FPF after establishing the Fire Lane) only if a TPBF/CC-Reaction-Fire situation occurs (8.312/D7.21)—in which case the Fire Lane must be cancelled [EXC: an unarmored vehicle with no PRC (7.212) or an armored vehicle with no Vulnerable PRC which does not end its MPh in the Location do not require cancellation], even if the unit entering the MG's hex does so across the hexside of the Fire Lane.

9.3 SUSTAINED FIRE: A MG that attacks using Subsequent-First-Fire/FPF (8.3/8.31), or during the DFPh while marked with a First Fire counter (8.4), is using Sustained Fire and as a consequence its B# is lowered by two (see A.11) in addition to its FP being halved as Area Fire. Sustained Fire cannot be used by a vehicular MG [EXC: MA, as per 8.4], nor if firing as ordnance, nor by a MG fired by a lone SMC. Sustained Fire always forfeits any chance for additional shots during the current phase [EXC: FPF; 8.31] and results in a Final [errata included] Fire counter being placed on the weapon, regardless of its Multiple ROF and the colored dr.

       A8.31 & A9.3

9.4 MANDATORY FIRE DIRECTION: MG fire is limited to a 16 hex maximum range unless an Infantry leader (even a 0 or + DRM leader) is directing that fire; moreover, MG attacks vs unconcealed Infantry at a range ≥ 17 hexes treat those Infantry as concealed unless they are broken/berserk/overstacked [EXC: A CMG/IFE, which was usually rigidly mounted and equipped with a telescopic sight, does not require the presence of a leader to fire beyond 16 hexes, nor does it treat unconcealed Infantry as concealed]. A MG using Mandatory Fire Direction/Long Range Fire has no effect vs armored targets. See 12.14 for an EX of usage.

       A9.4 & B30.7

9.5 SPRAYING FIRE: A MG (not vehicular MG except for MA) may use Spraying Fire instead of its normal FP at any two target Locations in its LOS except its own Location (7.212), provided each target Location shares a common hexside with the other. The TEM of each target Location and LOS Hindrances between the firer and each target apply individually to each attack although both attacks use the same Original IFT resolution DR. Spraying Fire is always Area Fire. Any Location not in the MG's LOS is unaffected by its Spraying Fire. The target Locations can be "adjacent" vertically in the case of building upper levels, but each must be within one level of the other and in the same hex. Spraying Fire can be traced to points other than the hex center when firing at units in Bypass (4.34) or using the road movement rate in a non-Open Ground hex (4.132).

EX: A German 5-4-8 squad with a LMG in 1G4 can trace LOS to both H3 and I4. Combining its inherent FP with the FP of the LMG, it attacks both hexes using Spraying Fire thus halving the FP vs each hex. H3 is attacked with 8FP (PBF) and a +2 TEM, and I4 with 4FP and no DRM.

       A8.15, A9.22, & A9.5

9.51 vs VEHICLE: Spraying Fire (Like all forms of Area Fire) has no effect vs an AFV, but can affect Vulnerable PRC and unarmored/partially armored vehicles in the same manner as Small Arms Fire.

9.52 RESTRICTIONS: Spraying Fire cannot be used in a FG attack unless all members of the FG are capable of Spraying Fire, opt to use it, and trace their LOS to the same two target points. Spraying fire can be used against a moving unit and against a Location without a moving unit (halved again for Area Fire), although its only effect in the second Location would be to leave Residual FP. [errata included] A unit marked with a First Fire counter which attacks during Final Fire may use Spraying Fire only if both of the attacked hexes are adjacent to the firer. Spraying Fire cannot be used vs descending paratroops.


9.6 VEHICULAR TARGETS: The process for resolution of MG fire vs vehicular targets is dependent on whether the vehicle Target Facing/ Aspect is armored or not. If the Target Facing is armored, such fire is resolved on the AP To Kill Table after securing a hit on the To Hit Table; otherwise it is resolved on the ★ Vehicle line of the IFT and no To Hit DR is necessary. A non-captured MG To Hit DR always uses the black To Hit numbers regardless of nationality when firing as ordnance.


9.61 AFV KILL: Unlike Small Arms Fire, a MG attack may conceivably destroy a poorly armored AFV during a fire phase by attacking it alone (i.e., not as part of a FG) on the To Hit Table (using the Vehicle Target Type) and the AP To Kill Table. Such an attack must be made within Normal Range of the MG, without any form of halved FP penalty imposed, and predesignated as an AFV To Kill attack vs a specific AFV. If hit in an unarmored Target Facing, the AFV is attacked on the ★ Vehicle line of the IFT instead of on the AP To Kill Table. If the resulting To Kill DR is < the Final Kill Number for that Target Facing the AFV is eliminated (and burning if ≤ half of the Final Kill Number), and if the To Kill DR equals the Final Kill Number the AFV is Stunned (even if BU; D5.34). See C3.8 (Multiple Hits), C3.9 (Location of Hits) and D3.54 (Vehicular MG Fire vs AFV) for related information.


       A9.61 & C13.31

9.611 EFFECT vs PERSONNEL: A MG making a normal IFT attack has no effect vs armor other than its effect on any Vulnerable PRC. However, a MG To Kill attack can also affect Vulnerable PRC of that AFV Collaterally (D.8A).

9.7 SUPPORT WEAPON (SW) MALFUNCTION: Whenever a SW fires there is a chance it will jam or run out of ammunition. Each SW has an inherent B12 unless it has a Breakdown Number printed on its counter in the form "B#" or "X#". Whenever a SW participates in an attack in which the Original IFT resolution DR (or To Hit DR in the case of ordnance weapons) is ≥ that SW's B#, that SW malfunctions and is inverted (or if the SW has an X#, the SW has permanently malfunctioned and is removed). The attack which caused the breakdown is still resolved [EXC: DC; 23.4] but no subsequent fire is allowed from that SW until it has been repaired (see A.11). A white "X" is superimposed over the nationality color of the malfunctioned side of a SW/Gun as a reminder that it is malfunctioned and subject to repair. A SW/Gun without this white X on its reverse side cannot be repaired or requires placement of a special Malfunction counter.

9.71 MULTIPLE SW MALFUNCTION: Should a FG containing two or more SW roll ≥ a B# when resolving its attack, at least one of the participating SW whose B# has been rolled will malfunction, but not necessarily all of them. Random Selection is used to determine the one(s) affected. This rule also applies to multiple MG and OVR attacks by the same AFV (D3.7), as well as to multiple elimination due to rolling ≥ X#.

EX: A FG contains a German HMG using Sustained Fire (thus a B# of 10 and an X# of 12 [A.11]) and a LMG firing normally (B# of 12). If the Original IFT DR is a 10 or 11, the HMG automatically malfunctions. However, if the IFT DR is a 12, either the LMG malfunctions, the HMG is removed, or both—as determined by Random Selection.

9.72 SW/GUN REPAIR: Any Good Order unit may attempt to repair as many of its malfunctioned SW during any RPh as it can fire in one phase, by making a dr (∆) for each. If the Repair dr is ≤ the Repair Number listed on the back of the counter (in the form "R#"), the SW/Gun is repaired. A dr of 6 eliminates the SW/Gun; any other dr results in no change during that Player Turn. A captured SW/Gun may never be repaired unless recaptured by its original side. Only a crew (not a Temporary Crew) can attempt to repair a Gun, and not while hooked up.

9.73 SW SELF-DESTRUCTION: A SW/Gun/vehicular-weapon may be destroyed or deliberately malfunctioned (instead of firing it) by the unit or inherent crew possessing it during any PFPh/DFPh in which the weapon and possessing unit would otherwise still be allowed to fire it (see 8.4 for DFPh restrictions). A unit/inherent crew may malfunction/destroy only as many weapons as it could fire were it not engaged in their malfunction/destruction. Such destruction counts as use of a SW.


9.74 RANDOM SW/GUN DESTRUCTION: When a Final KIA result occurs on the IFT [EXC: to determine Gun Destruction due to ordnance/bomb/DC/OBA; see C11.4-.52], make a dr on the same column of the IFT for each SW/Gun possessed by the unit(s) eliminated by that KIA. Indirect Fire and OVR attacks can also destroy unpossessed weapons in the target hex. A -1 drm applies to the SW Destruction dr if the KIA was due to a fully-tracked AFV OVR, but no DRM carries over from the original KIA resolution. If the Final dr is a KIA, that SW/Gun is eliminated; if it is a K, that SW/Gun is malfunctioned (or eliminated if already malfunctioned). An overrunning, fully-tracked AFV which ends its MPh in a target Location may check for Random SW Destruction of unlimbered, NM, and RFNM (C10.2-.26) Guns and abandoned weapons even if the OVR did not result in a KIA unless the weapon is in an entrenchment. A fully-tracked AFV may make an OVR attack vs a Location devoid of Personnel to automatically destroy any Gun/SW therein not in an entrenchment, but must pay normal OVR MP costs. See 11.13 for Random SW/Gun destruction occurring in CC.


9.8 DISMANTLED (dm) SW: Any light mortar of ≥ four PP, 76-82mm mortar, or non-Russian HMG/MMG [EXC: Russian .50 Cal. MG] may have its PP halved (FRU) if in a dismantled state. A dm weapon is replaced with the appropriate dm SW counter. A weapon may be converted to an appropriate dm SW counter (or vice versa) by the unit possessing it during any PFPh/DFPh in which the weapon has not fired, but such conversion counts as use of that SW (including the use of all ROF). A unit may assemble/disassemble only as many weapons as it could fire were it not engaged in assembly/disassembly. 76-82mm mortars can be portaged by Infantry in the dm state at a cost of five PP apiece. A weapon may start a scenario dm at the owner's option [EXC: if listed as dm it must start in that state]. A malfunctioning weapon may be dismantled and transported, and repairs can be attempted while it is dm (using its normal, assembled R#). If captured, the captor may disassemble/reassemble a weapon as if it were his own. A mortar or MG Removed or Scrounged from a vehicle/wreck in which it was previously inherent armament is always removed as a dm SW if possible. A dm SW may not be fired until reassembled [EXC: a German dm HMG/MMG may be fired as a German LMG14]. Should a dm German HMG/MMG malfunction while firing as a LMG, it is marked with a MG Malfunction counter until repaired or removed (or assembled; in which case the inverted HMG/MMG counter can be used instead).