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Advanced Squad Leader Rulebook Updated and Erraticized

3. THE TO HIT PROCESS C3 TO HIT TABLE

 

       C3. & C6.2

3.1 Firing ordnance is always a one- or two-step process. First the firer must determine if he has hit the target; if he has, he must then determine the effect(s), if any, of that hit.

       A12.3 & C3.1

3.2 COVERED ARC (CA): Unlike Personnel units and SW, which can fire in any direction regardless of facing, the placement within a hex of a vehicle/Gun counter is important in that it defines that piece's current Field  of Fire, thus affecting its chances of hitting a target. A vehicle/Gun's facing is called its Covered Arc (CA) and is derived by placing the counter such that its depicted gun barrel (or vehicle front) points directly at one of the six hexspines of its current hex. The CA comprises the two hexes joined by that hexspine, all the hexes (and hexsides) of the two diagonal rows of hexes that pass through those hexes while converging on the unit's hex, and all the hexes between those two converging diagonal hexrows (see the example below). If the current placement of the counter is ambiguous such that the CA hexspine cannot be determined, the opposing player may select which of the two equidistant hexspines shall be used to determine the present CA of the counter.

EX: 4E6 is also within the Gun's CA; however, during the enemy's MPh, the target would have to cross a hexside of the Gun's CA when it entered E6. A8, B8, C9, D9, and E10 are also within the Gun's CA if the range is extended another hex.

       C3.2

       A2.9, A12.3, & C3.2

3.21 FIRING WITHIN CA: A Gun can fire only at a target within its CA. To fire at a target outside its CA, the unit must first change its CA to bring the target within that new CA. Changing a CA in the same fire phase in which the unit fires incurs a TH DRM penalty (5.1) that lessens the chance of obtaining a hit. This DRM varies in severity depending on the circumstances. See D3.52 for IFE and Canister.

3.22 CHANGING CA WITHOUT FIRE: A Gun may change its CA without firing only at the end of a friendly fire phase (not MPh), and only if at that time its crew is still able to fire it without using Intensive/Sustained Fire [EXC: (un)limbering (10.22), Pushing (10.3), and turreted guns with other turreted armament (D3.51)]. Such a change in the PFPh cancels any movement possibilities for that Gun (even a vehicular Gun) and its crew for the rest of that Player Turn, but does not prevent that Gun from attacking in the AFPh—presumably now without any Case A DRM.

3.3 TO HIT (TH) TABLE: The TH process is merely a matter of cross-indexing the "Target Type" classification with the "Range" to the target on the TH Table to obtain a Basic To Hit Number (TH#). Any Gun or Ammo modifications (C4) are added directly to the Basic TH# to achieve a Modified TH#. A Final DR ≤ this Modified TH# results in a hit vs the target, which is then resolved on the IFT vs Infantry/Cavalry/Motorcycle targets or on the appropriate To Kill Table vs non-motorcycle vehicular targets [EXC: Boats; E5.5-.52]. A Final DR > the Modified TH# results in a Miss, which requires no further resolution [EXC: Vehicular Overstacking; A5.132]. The TH DR is also subject to favorable/detrimental modifications for a variety of causes. Each possible TH DRM is listed under the TH Table and explained in Sections 5 and 6. All Firer and Target TH Determination DRM are cumulative except as noted otherwise on each applicable TH line. There are two Basic TH# for each Range and Target Type combination, one red and one black [EXC: the Area Target Type has only red Basic TH# which are used by all nationalities]. The proper color TH# to be used is specified for each nationality on the A25 National Capabilities Chart in the "Ordnance TH#" column. Ordnance using a TH Table can cause Collateral Attacks to Vulnerable PRC; D.8.

       A7.4 & C3.3

       C3.33

3.31 VEHICLE TARGET TYPE: The Vehicle Target Type can be selected only when firing at a specific vehicle (even if HIP/concealed) and must be used when firing at an AFV [EXC: firing HE or SMOKE when using the Area Target Type (3.33)]. A hit on the target vehicle cannot itself cause damage to any other vehicle, Infantry, Cavalry, and/or terrain in the same target hex. The Vehicle Target Type cannot be used to fire at motorcycles.

3.32 INFANTRY TARGET TYPE: The Infantry Target Type can be selected only when firing HE [EXC: AP or HEAT vs an unarmored target (8.31, 11.52)] and only against an unarmored target. All AFV (but not their Vulnerable PRC) in the target Location are immune to damage from a hit on this table, other than that resulting from damage to terrain (B24.121). All other in-LOS enemy units in that Location can be hit [EXC: those immune as per 3.4], and all that are hit are then attacked on the IFT with a single Effects DR; see 3.4.

EX: A Russian 57LL AT Gun Prep Fires with HE on the Infantry Target Type at a shellhole hex six hexes away containing an Opel Blitz truck (0 size TH DRM), a Kuebelwagen (+2 size TH DRM) and an Infantry squad. An Original TH DR of 8 for the truck, 7 for the squad (+1 shellhole TEM), and 6 for the Kuebelwagen (+2 size TH DRM) is needed, so if that DR is ≤ 6 all three targets will be hit and their fate will be resolved on the "6" column of the IFT with a single Effects DR. An Original TH DR of 9 will not result in a possible hit vs one of the vehicles due to vehicular Overstacking (A5.132), because the Infantry Target Type was used.

3.33 AREA TARGET TYPE: The Area Target Type must be used at all times by mortars and whenever ordnance [EXC: LATW] attempts to fire SMOKE; otherwise it may be selected when firing HE (but not AP/HEAT HE Equivalency; 8.31). All (including friendly) non-Aerial units in the target hex can be hit (even by WP), except for those immune as per 3.4 [EXC: a mortar also hits all target-hex units that are out of its firer's (Spotter's, if one is being used; 9.3) LOS if that shot hit the non-hidden enemy target that currently was the hardest for it to hit (i.e., that received the highest net TH DRM for that shot)]. All units hit by HE are attacked on the IFT using a single DR and half the FP of the firing ordnance; all vulnerable units/PRC hit by WP must take an A24.31 NMC see A24.31 for a hit by WP or if in a Location where WP is placed [errata included]{J8}. Fire on the Area Target Type by a non-Mortar consumes all of that Gun's ROF for that turn (excluding Intensive Fire) and thus cannot be used after taking any other shot first. Use of the Area Target Type does not itself prohibit Interdiction. The Area Target Type cannot be used within the firer's own hex (i.e., at zero hex range), or as Bounding First (D3.3) or Motion Fire (D2.42).7

       C3.33

       C3.33 & C5.6

       C3.33 & D10.1

3.331 TH Cases C1-C4, E, G and L do not apply to the Area Target Type. TEM (Case Q) does not apply to an Area Target TH DR, but TEM that does not grant the target HD status vs that shot (see D4.2-.21) does apply (as per 3.4) to the resulting Effects DR. (See also 1.52 and 1.55 for TEM vs a mortar.) All other TH DRM apply to the Area Target Type TH DR in the normal manner vs each applicable target.

EX: A German 50mm mortar at level 0 Prep Fires at a woods-gully hex that contains two enemy squads (one concealed and one Known) in Crest status at level 0 and a third IN the gully. If its TH DR is low enough to hit the concealed squad it will also hit the other two squads, resulting (barring a CH) in a 2-FP attack vs all three enemy units resolved with one IFT DR (and a -1 DRM due to Air Bursts, but with no Crest TEM). Assuming the mortar retains its ROF—which it can do despite using the Area Target Type—it now Prep Fires on a building hex that contains one enemy squad apiece at the ground and upper levels plus a German OT AFV in bypass out of the mortar crew's LOS. The crew's LOS to the ground-level (only) squad is Hindered by a grainfield, which will modify the TH DR (Case R; 6.9) vs that enemy squad—but not vs the upper-level squad (3.4). Barring a CH, each squad hit will undergo a 2-FP IFT attack modified by the appropriate building TEM (B23.3; B23.32). If the ground-level squad is hit, the AFV will also undergo a 2-FP IFT attack as per 3.332 (with a -1 DRM for being OT; 1.55) despite being friendly to the firer. See also B9.521 second EX for WP placement{J8}.

3.332 An Area Target Type hit vs vehicles [EXC: motorcycle; D15.5] is resolved as per 1.55 (see also D5.311 for mortar Air Bursts). Vulnerable PRC are attacked Collaterally (D.8B) unless otherwise prohibited.

EX: A Russian 76mm Gun uses the Area Target Type to fire HE at a hex that contains a PzKpfw IIIG that, due to being behind a wall, is HD to the firer. The Original TH DR's colored dr is < its white dr, so the tank is hit. To resolve the hit the 6 FP column of the IFT is used, with a -1 Effects DRM (all AF ≤ 4; 1.55); the wall TEM does not apply since it gave the tank its HD status (D4.2). If the wall were instead a hedge, the tank would not be HD but the net Effects DRM would be 0 (-1 [an AF ≤ 4] plus +1 [hedge TEM] = 0). If the tank were instead a truck, the hit would be resolved on the ★ Vehicle Line of the IFT's 6 FP column with a net Effects DRM of 0 (if HD behind the wall) or +1 (if behind the hedge). In both cases, if the vehicle was not destroyed, its non-shocked non-stunned vulnerable PRC would be subject to a General Collateral Attack (D.8B) but would receive no wall/hedge TEM (B9.3).

3.4 MULTIPLE TARGETS: A hit obtained on any TH Table affects only the target hex and, depending on the Target-Type/applicable-DRM, not necessarily all the occupants of that hex. Not all enemy (and Melee) potential targets in a hex/Location are always hit/affected, because some of them might be immune due to qualifying for TH/Effects DRM not applicable to others, being out of the firer's LOS, being too close (2.6) to be hit or in a Location immune to a hit, being non-moving during Defensive First Fire, etc. Hence one shot can result in a combination of hits/misses and varying subsequent effects. See also A7.4.

3.41 The Infantry, as well as the Area, Target Type may be used to attack a(n) unarmored-target/unmanned-Gun/building/bridge/vehicle, and may also attack a hex devoid of such. [EXC: The Infantry Target Type (3.32) attacks a specific Location rather than an entire hex, and cannot be used to attack an AFV.]

3.5 FP MODIFIERS: Most FP modifications do not apply to ordnance attacks. See also C.6.

3.51  Ordnance does not double/triple its IFT FP for PBF/TPBF; instead the chances for a CH (3.7) may increase as the range to a target decreases.

3.52 Ordnance has no Long Range Fire. Since it cannot hit a target outside its listed range (2.25), it cannot harm that target.

3.53  Ordnance FP is not halved for firing at a concealed target, nor for being pinned, nor for firing in the AFPh. However, ordnance HE FP is halved for firing into a marsh or vs fording Infantry/Cavalry; if also using the Area Target Type, the FP is halved twice.

3.6 IMPROBABLE HITS: C3.6 Improbable Hits When firing under adverse conditions, it can become impossible to roll ≤ the required TH#. When this is the case (i.e., when the lowest Final TH DR possible for that shot would be a miss), the firer still obtains a hit with an Original 2 TH DR by making a subsequent dr of 1, 2 or 3. A subsequent dr of 1 is a CH, a 2 is a turret/upper-superstructure hit, and a 3 is a hull hit (unless HD); a 4-6 (3-6 if HD) is a miss. Both hull and turret hits are considered normal hits vs non-vehicular targets.

EX: A German L Gun fires on the Infantry Target Type at a target 37 hexes away, thus requiring a Modified (3.3) TH# of 3. All of the pertinent TH DRM amount to +2, so the German player needs to make a 1 DR to score a hit. Even though this is impossible, the German can possibly score a hit with an Original 2 TH DR. Having rolled the Original 2 TH DR, he makes a third dr. If the dr is 1-3, he has scored a hit; otherwise he has missed.

3.7 CRITICAL HITS (CH): C3.7 Critical Hits A CH is a hit so well placed that it increases the chance of causing damage on the resulting IFT Effects or TK DR. Even if the target is HD (3.9), a CH occurs on an Original 2 DR during the resolution of a HE (or WP; see 3.76) FFE (1.53), or on an Original TH DR of 2 on the Area/Vehicle Target Type or on a LATW TH Table. [EXC: Deliberate Immobilization (5.72). If only the lowest Final TH DR possible for that shot would achieve a hit, a CH occurs only on a subsequent dr of 1 following that hit; a 2-6 results in a normal hull hit (or a normal turret hit vs a HD vehicle); if the lowest Final TH DR possible for that shot would be a miss, 3.6 applies.] A CH also occurs while using the Infantry Target Type whenever the Final TH DR is < half the Modified TH# (3.3), or on an Original TH DR of 2 followed by a subsequent dr of 1 or ≤ half of the Modified TH#. MG (including all 12.7mm [.50-cal] and aircraft MG, but not 15mm) TK attacks have no CH possibility, since this effect is factored into their Basic TK# and Range modifiers. The effects of a HE FFE CH are resolved using the same Original 2 DR that caused it.

EX: A CE tank Prep Fires through its TCA at an Infantry unit in a wooden building two hexes away using the Infantry Target Type. There are no Gun or Ammo Basic TH# modifications at this range so the Modified TH# is 8. The only applicable To Hit DRM are cases L (-1) and Q (+2) for a combined To Hit DRM of +1. The tank would score a CH only on an Original DR of 2 (which becomes a Final DR of 3, which is the highest number that is < half of 8). Assuming the situation remains unchanged until the tank's next shot, it could repeat the same attack, this time adding the -1 Acquisition To Hit DRM of Case N for a combined To Hit DRM of 0. The tank would then score a CH on an Original To Hit DR ≤ 3 (which is also a Final DR ≤ 3). Should the situation remain unchanged again until its next shot, the tank could fire again, earning a -2 Acquisition To Hit DRM for a combined To HIT DRM of -1. The tank would then score a CH on an Original To Hit DR ≤ 4 (which equals a Final DR ≤ 3).

       C3.7

       A13.5 & C3.7

3.71 RESOLUTION vs NON-ARMORED TARGET: A CH vs a non-armored target is resolved on the IFT (as per A7.3-.308) with the attacking weapon's/FFE's full HE (or HE Equivalency; 8.31) FP doubled (with no prior halving or other modification [EXC: C.7] if using the Area Target Type, Barrage, etc.) [EXC: a hit requiring a TK DR (7.1) is resolved on the pertinent TK Table (7.31-.34) after doubling the Basic TK# (7.23)]. Furthermore, any positive TEM [EXC: higher-building-level TEM (B23.32), pillbox NCA TEM (B30.113), SMOKE, and Hindrance] which that target would normally be entitled to for TH or IFT purposes is reversed (before any movement modifications) and applies as a negative DRM to the IFT DR. Air Burst TEM, and any other negative TEM, e.g., Runway (B7.3), Hammada (F3.4), Bamboo (G3.3), as well as FFMO and FFNAM (or Hazardous Movement) are not reversed and still apply (if applicable) in addition to the effects of a CH. A CH automatically destroys a Gun and its manning Infantry (11.4).

EX: A squad using Non-Assault Movement through a woods hex is struck by a 50mm mortar HE CH. The attack is resolved on the 12 FP column of the IFT with a -2 DRM (-1 [FFNAM] + -1 [Air Burst] = -2).

       C3.71

       C3.71, B30.112 & B30.35

       C3.71 & C11.4

       A4.63 & C3.71

       B30.113 & C3.71

       C3.71

3.72 RESOLUTION vs ARMORED TARGET: A HE CH vs an AFV caused by a FFE or on the Area Target Type is resolved as per 1.55, but with doubled full FP (as per 3.71) and no TEM of any kind. See also C.7. If the CH involved Air Bursts vs an OT AFV, see also D5.311. Otherwise, a CH vs an AFV has its Basic TK# doubled on the pertinent TK Table (7.31-.34).

3.73 RESOLUTION vs TERRAIN: A CH has no special additional effect vs terrain. Fire and rubble generation are handled as per a non-CH.

3.74 RESOLUTION vs MULTIPLE TARGETS: Regardless of the number of targets in a Location struck by a CH, the special provisions of a CH apply only to the target(s) determined by Random Selection. Attacks on other units hit in that Location are resolved as if struck by a normal hit [EXC: If a CH is obtained vs a vehicle, the vehicle always receives the CH and any other units affected Collaterally are attacked normally; D.8.] If using the Area Target Type or OBA, and more than one occupied Location is hit, use Random Selection to determine the occupied Location in which the CH occurs.

       B30.34 & C3.74

3.75 HARASSING FIRE & BARRAGE: A HE CH achieved by Harassing Fire (1.72) or Barrage (E12.) is resolved with double the full FP of that OBA—not double its lowered FP.

3.76 WP: The resolution DR for a WP FFE is a special DR used to determine if a CH has occurred as per 3.7. A separate resolution DR is made for each Blast Area hex attacked during the PFPh and DFPh, and for each unit/stack attacked as per 1.51. This DR always precedes the WP NMC DR, and during the PFPh and DFPh is also used to determine whether a Flame has occurred as per A24.32.

       C3.76

3.8 MULTIPLE HITS:8 C3.8 Multiple Hits A Gun of ≥ 15mm but ≤ 40mm that scores a non-CH hit while rolling an Original Doubles TH DR on the Vehicle/Infantry Target Type has achieved two hits instead of one, with the result that the firer is then entitled to two DR on the applicable Effects table (IFT or TK), but uses only one of the two DR (firer's choice). IFE/LATW/MG-(including all 12.7mm [.50cal] and aircraft MG) fire does not qualify for Multiple Hits; nor do Guns granted ≥ 2 TK DR per hit via a pertinent Vehicle/Ordnance Note. A Multiple Hit must be applied to the same target; the firer may not apply the first hit to one target and the second to another. [Note: all unarmored units in the Location of an Infantry Target Type hit are considered the same target and subject to the chosen DR's effect.] A Multiple Hit occurring on the same To Hit DR that also yields a Gun malfunction or an ammunition depletion still yields two hits of the same ammunition type. The first To Kill DR of a Multiple Hit vs a vehicle is also used to determine the location of the second hit as per 3.9. An Improbable Hit (3.6) cannot achieve Multiple Hits.

       A14.1 & C3.8

       A14.1 & C3.8

       C3.8 & D4.2

       C3.8

3.9 LOCATION OF VEHICULAR HITS: C3.9 Location of Vehicular Hit It is often necessary to know the location of a hit vs a vehicular target in order to determine the correct AF (or in the case of a HD target, whether a hit has been scored at all). An ordnance hit vs a vehicle strikes its turret/upper-superstructure Aspect (as opposed to its hull Aspect) if the colored dr of the Original TH DR is < the white dr [EXC: A CH vs a HD target is always considered to occur vs the turret/upper-superstructure, and can occur on an Original 2 TH DR; 3.7]. Otherwise, the hit strikes the hull. A turreted vehicle hit on the turret bases its Target Facing (D3.2) for the subsequent resolution of that hit on its TCA, not its VCA.

       A22.34 & C3.9

       C3.9 & D4.3