2.1 A vehicle may expend up to its full MP allotment (and tracked vehicles may even exceed it at some risk; ESB, 2.5) during its own MPh in accordance with the COT entered, as listed on the pertinent MP Entrance Cost column of the Terrain Chart. The mechanics of vehicular movement are the same as for Infantry (A4.2 & A8.1). During his MPh, a player may move all, some, or none of his vehicular units, provided that each one he wishes to move did not fire during the preceding PFPh, is not TI, and is Mobile [EXC: Radioless AFV; 14.23]. A vehicle can be moved in any direction or combination of directions up to the limit of its MP allotment. A vehicle may enter one or more enemy-occupied hexes during the MPh—although at some risk, and perhaps at additional MP cost. A vehicle which ends its MPh with MP remaining is assumed to use all those MP in that hex. Once a vehicle has moved to a new hex/hexside during its MPh (even if it is currently stopped or Immobile), it is still considered a moving target (To Hit Case J) to any Defensive Fire because it entered a new hex/hexside during that MPh (C.8). A vehicle may never move during the APh.
2.11 VCA CHANGES: The Vehicular Covered Arc is the CA (C3.2) of a vehicle based on the front of that vehicle. During setup and movement, care must always be taken to ensure that the VCA is clearly defined (along one of the six hexspines of its currently occupied hex) as it expends MP to change its hex/VCA. VCA can be changed only at the cost of one MP per hexspine change (two MP per hexspine change if actually in [not in bypass of] a building/woods/rubble or any combination thereof). Bog penalties for entry of difficult terrain are also applicable to VCA changes in that terrain if not also on a road (see Terrain Chart). A vehicle must move within its current VCA as it enters each hex [EXC: Reverse Movement]. For a vehicle to move directly to a hex outside its current VCA it must first expend one MP per hexspine changed to change its VCA within its currently-occupied hex, or use Reverse Movement. The MP expenditure for a change of VCA within a vehicle's currently-occupied hex must be announced separately for each hexspine change so that the DEFENDER may intervene to Defensive First Fire at the target at that point, although this alone would not qualify the vehicle as a moving target (C.8). A VCA can also be changed following a successful Motion Attempt (2.401), as a result of firing outside its CA during any fire phase (other than its own MPh; C5.1), or at the end of any fire phase in which it is still eligible to fire a turret/bow-mounted weapon (3.12 and C3.22).
EX: A moving tank in 3M3 with a VCA of L2-M2 must expend two MP in M3 in order to change its VCA two hexspines to N2-N3 so that it can move into N3 by expending one more MP in N3. Its VCA is now O3-O4 and it can enter either of those hexes, but instead it pays another MP to change its VCA one hexspine to O4-N4 so that it can move to N4.
2.12 STARTING: A vehicle not under a Motion counter must expend one MP to start movement before entering a new hex or changing its VCA during the MPh. Unless Reverse Movement (2.2) is declared, forward movement is assumed. The Starting MP expenditure is considered to take place in the currently occupied hex (thereby making it subject to Defensive First Fire in that hex although not as a moving target; C.8). A Starting MP expenditure is not necessary if entering from offboard because such units are assumed to have set up in Motion (A2.52).
2.13 STOPPING: A vehicle must expend one additional MP in its current hex to stop movement, unless it is ending its MPh under a Motion counter (2.4). If it stops (e.g., to fire or to fake fire), it may begin to move again during that MPh if it has MP remaining, but must pay the Starting MP expenditure to do so. Even though stopped, the vehicle is considered a moving target if it entered a new hex/hexside during that Player Turn or began its MPh in Motion (C.8).
2.14 WRECK/VEHICLES: A vehicle [EXC: motorcycle] must pay one additional MP (or MF for a wagon) per wreck or vehicle (not motorcycle) in a hex (regardless of nationality) to enter that hex. This penalty is doubled to two MP per wreck or vehicle in the hex if the hex is entered via a road hexside while using the road movement rate, and can be doubled again for certain types of roads (see Note D of Terrain Chart).
2.15 MINIMUM MOVE: A Mobile vehicle may attempt to move just one hex per MPh into permissible terrain if the MP Entry cost of that hex is > the vehicle's printed MP allotment. This is done by declaring a Minimum Move attempt and moving into the new hex while expending all its MP allotment (other than any towing MP (C10.1)/any starting MP required in the hex being exited) as it does so, making any Bog (8.2) DR required for normal entry of that hex, and (if still Mobile) being placed under a Motion counter. VCA change or entry of a blocked One-Lane bridge or Sunken Lane, are prohibited to a vehicle during a MPh in which it attempts a Minimum Move. See 2.24 for Reverse Minimum Move. If the (now in Motion) vehicle wishes to fire, 2.42 applies. A vehicle which stalls (e.g., German Vehicle Listing Notes F and H, and Russian Note M in Chapter H) while attempting to start may not claim a Minimum Move during that Player Turn.
2.16 ROAD RATE: The ½ MP rate for a motorized vehicle crossing a road hexside is doubled to one MP if the vehicle is a BU (5.2) AFV.
2.17 DELAY: The expenditure of MP without moving is termed Delay and can be used only while the vehicle is stopped or using platoon movement (14.21). This might be done to increase its MP expenditure in LOS of its target during that MPh before firing (so as to use To Hit Case C instead of Case C1 or C2), to change its TCA (3.12), or to draw enemy Defensive First Fire, or to use up part of its MP allotment while stopped before starting to move.
2.2 REVERSE MOVEMENT: Occasionally a vehicle may wish to leave its present hex without directly entering a hex within its VCA, but cannot (or does not want to) change its VCA within its current hex. Reverse movement is then its only option. Motorcycles, and vehicles towing Guns or trailers, may not use Reverse Movement.
2.21 MP COST: Reverse Movement costs quadruple the normal MP entry cost for tracked vehicles, triple for trucks, and double for most armored cars. Exceptions to these Reverse MP classifications are listed on the reverse of the applicable counters in the form "REV x #" with "#" being the number used to multiply normal MP cost for Reverse Movement. If a MP multiplier or penalty were already in effect (such as doubled MP costs for VBM) for normal entry of a hex, the Reverse Movement multiplier would be applied to the total cost of entry of that hex, including any penalties/multipliers for any purpose other than stopping/starting movement.
EX: A stopped BT-7 M37 tank in 2FF5 with VCA FF4-GG5 uses VBM and Reverse Movement to back out of FF5 to FF6 and EE7. It costs the tank nine MP ((2 [VBM] X 1 [Open Ground] = 2 MP) X 4 [Reverse Movement] = 8+1 [starting] = 9 MP)) to enter FF6 in Reverse and another four MP to back into EE7 (4 [Reverse Movement] X 1 [Open Ground] = 4 MP) since it cannot change its VCA in obstacle hex FF6 (2.33) unless it continues Bypass in that hex.
2.22 RESTRICTIONS: Any hex entered with Reverse Movement must be one of the two hexes which formed the rear vehicular Target Facing of the vehicle prior to that move, and the only hexside that can be Bypassed by that Reverse Move is the hexside joining those two hexes. Once backed into its new hex, it may change its VCA (barring other restrictions) within that new hex at the normal cost.
EX: Continuing the 2.21 example, the BT-7 M37 could not use VBM and Reverse Movement to Bypass hexside FF6-GG6. With its VCA at FF4-GG5 it could Bypass only along hexside FF6-EE6.
2.23 START/STOP: Unless Reverse Movement is specified upon expending a Starting MP, forward movement is assumed. A vehicle combining both forward and Reverse movement in the same MPh must pay a MP to stop and another MP to start again as it switches from one direction to the other.
2.24 REVERSE MOTION: "Reverse Motion" counters are provided in WEST OF ALAMEIN, the use of which enables a vehicle to end its MPh in Motion while using Reverse Movement [EXC: NA if the vehicle is prohibited from using Reverse Movement], and also enables it to make a Reverse Minimum Move. When using Reverse Motion/Minimum-Move, the principles of and rules for Motion, Minimum Move and Reverse apply unchanged except for obvious differences due to the vehicle's direction of movement.
EX: Continuing the 2.21 example, assume the BT-7 M37 is in Motion in 2FF5 with VCA FF4-GG5 and decides to Reverse move into hill hex EE6. It will cost two MP to stop and again start movement, and 20 MP to reverse into EE6 (4 [Reverse Movement] X (1 [Open Ground] +4 [move to higher elevation] = 5) = 20) for a total MP expenditure of 22, plus one more MP to stop. Rather than spending the MP to stop, it could instead end the MPh in Reverse Motion—without expending any additional MP, since it does not have sufficient MP remaining to enter the next hex it desires to enter (2.4).
2.3 VEHICULAR BYPASS MOVEMENT (VBM): VBM enables vehicles (and animal-drawn transport) to move through a building/woods hex at a reduced MP (MF) cost without risking Bog penalties for movement through those obstacles. The MP cost of VBM is double that of the hex's non-obstacle terrain (usually Open Ground) per hexside traversed; any additional terrain cost in that hex (such as SMOKE or a move to higher elevation) is also doubled. The vehicle is moving around the obstacle within the hex—not through the obstacle. Therefore, the interior of each hexside traversed must be clear of any obstacle depiction to the depth of an edge of a unit counter for VBM to be usable. Hold a unit counter vertically so that the entire thickness of the hex-side is just visible along the edge—if the other edge touches any obstacle depiction, VBM is not allowed along that hexside. Walls/hedges are considered extensions of hexsides for this rule. If players cannot agree on whether a hex-side is obstructed, resolve the matter with a dr (as per A6.1). The hexside clearance measurement cannot be made until the VBM and all applicable MP costs are announced (and thus expended in the previously occupied hex/hexside [errata included] if the move is subsequently not allowed). If the hexside clearance is insufficient, the vehicle must expend one extra MP to stop in its present position—even if it then proceeds to start movement again in another direction.
EX: A vehicle using VBM to enter 3I10 from J10 must pay ten MP ((4 MP [higher elevation] +1 MP [Open Ground] = 5) x 2 [VBM] = 10MP).
EX: If a vehicle were Bypassing the woods in J10 along the J10-I10 hexside (assuming there was room enough), another vehicle in I10 could not Bypass the building along the I10-J10 hexside.
2.31 RESTRICTIONS: VBM is not allowed in any rubble hex, across any hexside connected directly to a roadblock hexside (B29.4), or in any hex containing a ground-level terrain Blaze. VBM is allowed only in woods/building hexes and only to Bypass those specific obstacles—not other terrain depictions which may be in the same hex. VBM is not allowed along a hexside already containing another Bypass vehicle/wreck along that hexside.
2.32 VCA & TARGET FACING: A vehicle in Bypass has a different (and much more restrictive) VCA because it is now traversing a hexside rather than a hex. When using VBM, the vehicle counter is placed on the hexside being traversed so that it straddles the hexside, with the VCA corner of the counter resting on the vertex of that hexside in the direction the vehicle is facing. This vertex is called the Covered Arc Focal Point (CAFP) and is the point in the hex where all fire to and from the vehicle is traced while using VBM or Stationary Bypass in that hex. The Bypass VCA consists of the hex directly in front of the vehicle formed by that vertex, the hexes of the two diagonal rows of hexes that converge on that hex, and all the hexes between those two converging diagonal hex rows. The Bypass VCA also doubles as the VBM front Target Facing as per the following diagram. The Target Facing of a hit vs a vehicle in Bypass is based on the hex it originated from (not the target hexside crossed as per normal Target Facing; 3.2); to score a rear hit the shot must have originated from a hex in the target's rear Target Facing. If a firer is itself on a CAFP that separates two adjacent Target Facings of the Bypass target, that fire is resolved as per C.5B. Any shot not originating from within a Bypass Target's front or rear Target Facing is considered to strike it in the side Target Facing (e.g., a hull hit from a weapon in the hex being Bypassed).
2.321 EX: Hexes 23BB4, AA5, BBS, Z5, AA6, and BB6 form the first six hexes of the front Target Facing and VCA of the PSW 234/2 in Bypass at BB3. Hexes CC3, CC2, DD2, CC1, DD1, and EE2 form the first six hexes of its rear Target Facing. All other hexes shown are part of one of its two side Target Facings. To fire on the 4-4-7 in AA4, the AFV will have to change its TCA to the side Target Facing and pays a +3 To Hit DRM for Case A (+2 [ST] +1 [Change to Bypass side Target Facing] = +3). Should it switch targets to the 6-2-8 in BB2 it must again pay the +2 To Hit DRM for Case A (ST), even though it is still firing in the same side Target Facing. Had it continued firing on the 4-4-7 instead, there would be no Case A To Hit DRM because it had already acquired that target. If the PSW 234/2 had changed its TCA all the way from the front to the rear so as to fire on DD1, the Case A To Hit DRM would be +4 (+3 [ST TCA change of two Target Facings] + 1 [TCA Target Facing change to/through side Target Facing] = +4).
2.321 BYPASS TCA: A vehicle in Bypass has only four points on which to base its TCA: The CAFP (Front), the reverse of the CAFP (Rear), and the two hexes it is straddling (Side)—at least one of which will be largely obstructed by the obstacle it is Bypassing. A side TCA is shown by placing the TCA counter so that it points at one of the two side corners of its AFV counter. A TCA based on a Bypass side Target Facing covers a potentially much larger Field of Fire (all hexes on that side of the firer between the front and rear Target Facings) and consequently must pay appropriate Case A (C5.1) penalties for firing within this enlarged CA even if it does not change its TCA [EXC: a weapon firing with an already earned Target Acquisition DRM (or, in the case of a CMG/IFE/Canister, vs the same Known target in the same Target Facing as last fired on) does not have to add Case A to fire within its current CA]. A TCA change to or through a Bypass side Target Facing must suffer an additional +1 To Hit DRM in addition to normal Case A DRM. A vehicle in Bypass must measure its Case A DRM in terms of Target Facings moved by the TCA, not hexsides.
2.33 VCA CHANGES: VCA changes by a vehicle using VBM are limited to the two hexsides of the VCA at the CAFP (i.e., the two hexspines of its CAFP which are not straddled by its counter). Therefore, a Bypassing vehicle desiring to move must either move (outright or via Bypass) into the hex which forms the base of its VCA, or pay one MP for a VCA change to continue Bypass along a connecting hexside of that CAFP (other than the one it just traversed), or use Reverse Movement. Even a fully-tracked CT AFV may not enter the obstacle of a hex it is currently Bypassing; it must first leave and reenter the hex. A vehicle in stationary Bypass cannot change its VCA to take a shot; i.e., it can only change VCA if exiting that Bypass hexside. A VBM vehicle making a VCA change cannot voluntarily end its MPh in that position; it must move to the next CAFP or reverse into a new hex to its rear. If Defensive First Fired upon or Immobilized before it can complete its move, it is considered to be at the same CAFP and Target Facing last occupied before the VCA change.
EX: A CE moving PzKpfw VIE in 1L1 with VCA K1-K2 spends ½ MP (shown in red) to enter K1 along the road, and therein spends one MP to change its VCA from J0-J1 to J1-K2. It then moves into K2 using VBM along hexside K2-J1 at a cost of two more MP. Its CAFP is K2-J1-I2. It may now spend one MP to change its VCA, plus two MP to continue VBM in K2 along the K2-I2 hex-side, to reach its new CAFP K2-K3-I2 at a total cost of 6½ MP; or it may leave the K2-I2-I1 CAFP become BU and enter the building in J2 at a cost of half its MP allotment (shown in yellow) and a Bog Check (8.21) with a +5 DRM, at a total cost of 9½ MP; or it may spend one MP to change its VCA to J2-J1, which will allow it to Bypass into J2 for another two MP to reach CAFP J2-J1-I2 (shown in blue) at a total cost of 6½ MP; or it may Stop, Start in Reverse, and use Reverse Movement into K1 for a total of 9½ MP. It cannot attempt VBM in J2 along the J2-K2 hexside because that hexside is too close to the building depiction in J2 (2.3), nor can it use Bypass in J1 because J1 is not a woods/building hex.
2.34 STATIONARY BYPASS: Unlike Infantry, a vehicle may voluntarily end its MPh using Bypass. It remains straddled across the hexside last traversed, with the CAFP defining its position within the hex, its VCA, and its vehicular Target Facing. Its ability to change its VCA is limited as per 2.33.
2.35 FIRING RESTRICTIONS: A vehicle in Bypass may not fire any bow-mounted armament outside its current VCA since the vehicle is unable to readily change its VCA to take the shot. A TCA can be changed while in Bypass but that CA is considerably different (2.32).
2.36 PRC: All Fire vs units embarking or disembarking from a Bypass vehicle must be traced to the CAFP of the vehicle—not the hex center. Infantry loading onto a vehicle (or PRC disembarking from one) in Bypass must do so in the hex occupied by the vehicle. Even though a Bypass vehicle straddles a hexside it is never considered in both hexes; it actually occupies the hex containing the obstacle it is Bypassing and its CAFP (C.5B).
2.37 LOS: Fire to/from a vehicle in Bypass alters the LOS rules somewhat because of the need to trace fire to/from the CAFP instead of the hex center. The obstacle depiction in the firer/target hex can actually block LOS to/from outside the hex (or within the hex in the rare case of enemy vehicles in Bypass on different hexsides of the same hex) if it is crossed before reaching the CAFP. A wall/hedge hexside does not block LOS to/from its hex even if the firer/target is in Bypass on the opposite side of that hex; such a vehicle in Bypass on the other side of that hex could not claim Wall Advantage (B9.32), or deny it to a unit adjacent to that wall/hedge hexside.
2.38 TEM: A vehicle in Bypass is in the Open Ground portion of the hex and is therefore not entitled to any beneficial TEM for the woods or building it is Bypassing [EXC: Residual FP (A8.2); also, in certain hexes (e.g., 2I9 or 3I1) a vehicle can be in Bypass of a building but still be in woods].
2.4 MOTION STATUS: Any Mobile vehicle (including a boat or amphibian) which has used its entire printed MP allotment during its MPh, without expending a MP to Stop (2.13) or Delay (2.17) at the end of that MPh, is considered in Motion and covered with a Motion counter. A vehicle may end its MPh in Motion without expending all of its MP only if it has insufficient MP remaining to enter the next hex it wishes to enter. A Motion vehicle (i.e., one covered by a Motion counter) receives no extra MP, but at the start of its MPh it does not have to pay the one MP Starting cost (2.12) and is considered a moving target during that MPh even prior to entry of a new hex. A vehicle's Motion counter is immediately removed when it starts movement in its next MPh or if the vehicle becomes Immobile. For a vehicle to not end its MPh in Motion status, it must always have one extra MP (beyond the total cost of the final hex entered) to expend as its Stopping MP (even if it means chancing an ESB DR to do so). A Motion tracked vehicle may use ESB but does not have to. A vehicle is marked with a Motion counter only before or after its MPh, not during it. A vehicle (and its PRC) which starts its Player Turn in Motion may not Prep Fire and must expend at least one MP (even if just to stop) during its MPh. A vehicle may not start a scenario set up onboard in Motion.
2.401 A Motion status attempt may be declared during the MPh of an enemy ground unit by any DEFENDING Mobile vehicle which makes a Motion attempt dr ≤ the number of MF/MP expended in its LOS by that unit during its MPh.3 The enemy unit must be one that had not been in the vehicle's LOS during that Player Turn prior to entering it during that MPh. If a subsequent (free) LOS Check proves that the unit had been in LOS during that Player Turn after all, the Motion attempt automatically fails. A vehicle may attempt Motion status only once per enemy MPh and may not attempt it at all if already marked with a First Fire (or Final/Intensive Fire) counter. There is no penalty (including "?" loss) for failing a Motion attempt dr other than the inability to gain Motion status during that Player Turn. A vehicle which gains Motion status during the enemy MPh is marked with a Motion counter and allowed to freely change its VCA/TCA (provided it passes any required Bog Check DR as a result), but may still use Motion Fire (Case C4) thereafter. Even a vehicle in Motion may make a Motion Attempt dr in this manner so as to freely change its VCA/TCA at that time. In any case, a successful Motion Attempt results in neither Motion nor VCA change if any mechanical reliability DR (2.51) results in Immobilization or stall. If the vehicle stalls, this is treated as a failed Motion Attempt only.
2.41 TARGET CONSEQUENCES: Any Motion vehicle is eligible for the Case J To Hit (Motion Target) DRM when fired upon, regardless of fire phase. The +2 DRM also applies to a Motion/Non-Stopped vehicle when attacked by DC (C7.346), MOL (A22.611), OVR (D7.12), or CC (A11.5), but not to any other attack resolved on the IFT. A Motion vehicle is never considered a LOS Hindrance/TEM.
2.42 FIRING CONSEQUENCES: A Motion/Non-Stopped vehicle/its-Passengers must add the Motion To Hit DRM (Case C4; C5.35) when firing ordnance. All other types of FP from such a vehicle (including FT/canister) and/or its Passengers'/Riders' FP are halved as Motion Fire which is cumulative with any other FP modifications, such as AFPh Fire [EXC: Thrown DC use +3 DRM instead (A23.6; C7.346)] and Mounted Fire (6.22, 6.72).
2.5 EXCESSIVE SPEED BREAKDOWN (ESB): D2.5 Excessive Speed Breakdown DRM A tracked vehicle may attempt once per MPh (at any point during its move) to exceed its land MP allotment at the risk of Immobilization.4 The maximum MP gain is limited to one-fourth (FRD) of the vehicle's printed MP allotment. A vehicle attempting ESB must state the number of MP it is trying to gain and make an ESB DR, adding a +1 DRM for each extra MP (FRD) sought [EXC: Any tracked vehicle whose MP allotment is printed in red is especially prone to breakdown and consequently must add a +1 DRM for each MP (FRU) sought in an ESB DR]. In addition, the ESB DR is modified by the nationality DRM of the vehicle's manufacturer (not its crew), as follows:
ESB DRM TABLE
U.S. (a), Czech (t)
Russian(r), all Chinese [errata included]
British (b), German (g)
French (f), Italian (i), Others
Any Final ESB DR ≤ 11 is successful and gains the declared MP amount, which can be used in one or more hexes. If the Final ESB DR is ≥ 12, the vehicle is immobilized in/on its current hex/hexside (although it is still considered a moving target for the rest of that MPh/DFPh if it had entered a new hex in that MPh prior to attempting ESB or began its MPh in Motion).
2.51 MECHANICAL RELIABILITY: Each time an AFV having a red MP allotment expends a MP to start (or makes a successful Motion attempt; 2.401), its owner must make a DR; if a 12 is rolled, the AFV has suffered a mechanical breakdown and is immobilized.5 If the owning player forgets to make this DR, the opposing player can thereafter call for it to be made at any time during that MPh as the AFV expends any MP. An AFV that suffers a Mechanical Reliability Immobilization is subject to Defensive First Fire (since it has expended a MP to start), but not as a moving target unless it had already entered a new hex/hexside during that MPh or started that MPh in Motion.
2.52 AXIS VEHICLES: All Axis vehicles [EXC: motorcycles] in North African (as defined in F11.2) scenarios set prior to October 1941 are assumed to have their MP allotments printed in red (2.5-.51).5A Hence even wheeled Axis vehicles are subject to Mechanical Reliability DR (2.51) during that time period.
2.6 ENEMY AFV: A vehicle cannot voluntarily stop or end its MPh in Motion in an enemy AFV's hex (whether Known or not) unless it can do so out of that AFV's LOS (i.e., while Bypassing a hexside opposite that of the DEFENDER'S Bypass AFV), or unless it can, at the moment and position of entry into that hex, attack that AFV (regardless of its To Hit possibility) and be capable of destroying or shocking it with an Original TK or IFT DR of 5 (using a non-Depletable ammo type available to the vehicle). A vehicle thus barred from remaining in an AFV's hex may not attempt ESB in that hex.
2.7 ALL MP/MF EXPENDITURE: Any hex entry listed on the Terrain Chart as requiring ALL of a unit's movement capability (other than a Minimum Move which must end in Motion) still allows the unit any MP/MF necessary for starting (2.12), stopping (2.13), or towing (C10.1), but further movement is NA even if ESB or Gallop is declared.