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Advanced Squad Leader Rulebook Updated and Erraticized


1.1 NIGHT VISIBILITY RANGE (NVR): E1.1-.15 Line of Sight Night1 rules are in effect only when cited by SSR. A SSR must always cite the Base NVR in effect for that scenario. The NVR is the maximum distance in hexes that any unit can see (barring LOS obstacles). This maximum distance is always measured in terms of the least number of hexes from the viewing unit's hex to the viewed hex (inclusive only of the latter), regardless of the actual number of hexes crossed by the LOS. Mark the current Base NVR by sliding the NVR counter along the Base NVR track of the Chapter K divider Scenario Aid Card.

       E.5 & E1.1

1.101 BEYOND NVR: Any unit at > another unit's NVR is beyond the hex range of visibility, and is therefore out of the latter's LOS unless marked by a Gunflash (1.81). Illuminated Locations (1.9)/moving vehicles (1.14) can be treated as being within NVR even when they are beyond the NVR. The NVR of all units in an Illuminated Location is limited to Illuminated areas only [EXC: Gunflashes are seen as per 1.8].


1.11 DYO: To determine the Base NVR in a DYO scenario for which research has not suggested an appropriate value, make a DR on the NVR table prior to setup, but after rolling for Weather (3.) if Weather rules are in play. The colored dr indicates the Cloud Cover and the white dr indicates the phase of the moon. A +1 drm applies to the colored dr if the scenario occurs in December, January, or February. If Weather rules are in play, Cloud Cover is automatically Overcast during Overcast/Falling Snow weather.


colored dr*

white dr

Final dr

Cloud Cover

Moon Phase








Overcast (not Overcast Weather; 3.5)

No Moon

*colored drm is +1 in Dec, Jan, Feb

Next, cross-index the Moon Phase and Cloud Cover to determine the NVR Modifier.



Moon Phase

Cloud Cover

No Moon















This NVR Modifier is added to 3 (or to 6 if Ground/Deep Snow is present) to determine the Base NVR for the first Player Turn of the DYO scenario.

EX: The NVR Table DR (in a scenario with no Ground/Deep Snow) is a colored 4 and a white 2, indicating Scattered clouds and a Full Moon, which means the Base NVR for the first Player Turn is four hexes.

1.12 NVR CHANGE: E1.12 NVR Change At the start of each subsequent RPh after the opening Player Turn of every night scenario, a NVR Change DR is made as an inherent part of the Wind Change DR: a 6 on the colored dr results in a one-hex change of the Base NVR. [EXC: If the scenario specifies Scattered Clouds and a Half or Full Moon, the NVR change is not necessarily a one-hex change, but is equal to a subsequent Final dr that is divided by three (FRU) for a Half Moon, or divided by two (FRU) for a Full Moon.] When the NVR Change colored dr indicates a Base NVR change, the white dr determines whether the Base NVR increases or decreases; a white dr ≤ 3 lowers the Base NVR (to a minimum of 0) and a white dr ≥ 5 raises the Base NVR (to a maximum of 6).2 A white dr of 4 results in No Change [EXC: before the first starshell/IR is placed, a dr of 4 increases the Base NVR].

EX: The base NVR is 3; there is no Cloud cover and No Moon. A Wind Change DR of 11 is made with a 6 on the colored dr. This results in a one-hex increase in the NVR to four hexes. Had there been Scattered Clouds and a Half Moon, another dr would have to be made to determine the amount of increase in the NVR; a dr of 1-3 would result in an increase of one, a dr of 4-6 would result in an increase of two.


1.13 ZERO NVR: When a unit's NVR is 0, all Locations except the one occupied by that unit are beyond its NVR [EXC: as per 1.101]. Whenever a moving ATTACKER whose NVR is zero attempts to move into a concealed DEFENDER'S Location (A12.15), it would not be returned to its just exited Location but would be vulnerable to TPBF from that DEFENDER. If so attacked, it cannot leave that Location; mark the units with a CC counter.

1.14 VEHICULAR NVR: A vehicle (and its PRC) that is in Motion/Non-Stopped [errata included], or changing its VCA, is treated as being within a viewing unit's NVR if it is at ≤ 1.5 times (FRU) the viewing unit's NVR (or at ≤ twice the viewing unit's NVR if the vehicle is tracked). If that viewing unit's NVR is 0, treat its NVR as 1 for a wheeled vehicle or 2 for a tracked vehicle. The NVR from a BU AFV is halved (FRD).

1.15 SNOW: Whenever Ground/Deep Snow is present, the maximum Base NVR (1.12) becomes nine hexes, and the minimum Base NVR becomes two hexes [EXC: between units in the same building the minimum Base NVR is still 0].

1.16 FORTIFICATIONS: E1.16-.21 Defense All Fortification counters are set up hidden at night regardless of terrain, and remain hidden until their protective TEM is used, a non-Dummy enemy unit (determined by the procedure given in A12.11 for minefields) enters the Location that contains it (or enters a pillbox's—but not a cave's—hex), or extra MF/MP are used to enter/exit it in the LOS of a Good Order enemy unit or its existence causes the failure of a non-Dummy unit's attempted entry into the Location (either because the unit does not have enough MF/MP or because entry is NA; the declared MF/MP are expended in the returned-to Location, treating vehicles as if attempted VBM (D2.3) had failed). During night scenarios there is no extra cost to enter/exit a pillbox/entrenchment unless it is done in the LOS of a Good Order enemy unit.

       A12.33, D14.3, & E1.16

       A12.152, E2, & E1.16

1.17 FACTORIES: For LOS traced completely within the building depiction of a Factory, a unit's NVR is 1 hex [EXC: if zero (1.13) or Illuminated (1.9)].

1.2 SCENARIO DEFENDER: The Scenario Defender in a night scenario may use HIP to set up 25% (FRU) of his onboard squad-equivalents (using squads and HS only [EXC: Japanese include crew MMC also]) and any SMC/SW that set(s) up with them in the same Location. The Scenario Defender may set up his remaining forces concealed, receiving Dummy counters equal to the number of squad-equivalents in his OB either at start or (separately) as reinforcements. These "?"/HIP allotments are in addition to any H1.6 purchases. Neither the "?"/HIP units need set up in Concealment Terrain but lose "?"/HIP as if they were. The Scenario Defender also has the option to record the Location as if they were HIP of any SMC/SW stacked with a HIP/concealed MMC until initially revealed rather than setting it up onboard. Such a counter must be placed onboard if it is ever in a different Location than that of the MMC or when the MMC is revealed.

       E1.2, O11.621, P8.621, Q9.619 & R9.619



       E1.2 & E1.3


1.21 FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT:3 E1.21 Freedom of Movement Each onboard unit of a Scenario Defender in a night scenario may attempt to move/ advance only if it has either been attacked by the enemy, by other than OBA/sniper, or has seen a Known enemy unit at some time during that scenario (such LOS checks are free). [EXC: If an AFV with a radio is allowed to move, all other friendly Mobile AFV (and their PRC as long as they remain PRC) with a radio may also.] Once the Scenario Attacker has resolved any attack other than a successful Ambush, the Scenario Defender's single best leader (using Random Selection if necessary to determine the best) can gain Freedom of Movement thereafter, if currently in Good Order, if the player makes a dr (∆) < his ELR. This Freedom of Movement dr can be made only once per friendly MPh. If a Good Order SMC is allowed to move in its MPh, any unit that begins the MPh with it, in the same stack, is allowed to move also (and need not move with it). As a memory aid, players should position all Scenario Defender units that are not yet free to move on a No Move counter (or, if preferred, they can be faced in a common direction instead). Once a unit has been freed to move, it retains this Freedom of Movement for the scenario's duration.



1.22 ELR LOSS: The ELR of a Scenario Defender in a night scenario is always printed on the OB as (and for a DYO scenario is assumed to be) one less than it would be normally. Those Scenario Defender units with an underlined Morale Factor have their ELR lowered to 4 but retain their special characteristics when exceeding their adjusted ELR (A1.23).

1.23 RECON: E1.23 Recon drm A SSR or DYO purchase may give the Scenario Attacker a single Recon dr after the Scenario Defender has set up, but prior to his own setup. The Final dr is the number of hexes (chosen by the Scenario Attacker) which the Scenario Defender must reveal units in, if in fact he had set up in them. Hidden units are placed in their setup hexes concealed. Concealed units in these hexes lose their concealed status (the Scenario Attacker also receives Right of Inspection of those units; A12.16) regardless of the presence of a LOS to any enemy units. If any hidden Fortifications are in the hex, they must be revealed and placed on the board [EXC: the type/strength of mines is not revealed, nor are Fortified Buildings/tunnels]. The Recon dr is modified by the following cumulative drm based on the Scenario Attacker's Majority Squad Type.

British, Partisans, Russians, Japanese, Finns




Germans, U.S.


All other nationalities




1.3 CONCEALMENT:   E1.3-.43 Concealment/Cloaking "?" is generally gained/retained more easily at night, but is otherwise identical to daylight concealment. Night "?" varies from daylight "?" in only three ways:

       E1.2 & E1.3


1.31 LOSS: An Infantry unit loses Cloaking/"?" at night if it uses Non-Assault Movement in a Location that is already Illuminated when that unit expends MF in it, or if it enters an enemy-occupied Location during the MPh. Otherwise, it does not lose Cloaking/"?" at night when moving/advancing. A unit in the act of movement when Illumination first affects its current Location has the option to expend no more MF/MP during that MPh [EXC: Straying units become TI; 1.53] and thereby avoid the loss of Cloaking/"?". Movement from an Illuminated Location into a non-Illuminated Location incurs loss of Cloaking/"?" only if it requires expenditure of MF/MP in the Illuminated Location (such as leaving a foxhole—but not for crossing a hexside into a non-Illuminated Location). Vehicles/cavalry lose "?" at night just as if it were daytime.

       A12.34 & E1.31

       B23.82 & E1.31


1.32 GAIN: Situations requiring a "?" dr (A12.122) in a daylight scenario gain "?" automatically in a night scenario.

1.33 NVR: An unconcealed unit beyond a viewing unit's NVR is never Known to that viewing unit unless the target can be treated as being within NVR as per 1.101.

1.4 CLOAKING:4 Only the Scenario Attacker uses Cloaking. A Cloaking counter is a "?" of any nationality not in play, and has all the characteristics of a "?" plus certain special benefits. Cloaked units are always concealed, but concealed units are not necessarily Cloaked. All rules pertaining to "?" apply to Cloaking counters except as specified otherwise herein.

       A.9, A14.23 & E1.4

       E1.4 & SSR VotG2

1.41 CONTENTS: The Scenario Attacker's Infantry (only) always starts the scenario in the form of Cloaking counters [EXC: Aerial landings]. Each Cloaking counter has an ID letter to identify it, and is used in place of actual units. Each Cloaking counter can represent any number of Infantry and their portaged SW up to the normal stacking limits of a Location (A5.1)—or it can represent no units at all (i.e., a Dummy which can be eliminated by its owner at any time). The actual contents (if any) of each Cloaking counter are recorded by placing them in the corresponding section of the Cloaking Box of the Chapter K divider, and are kept hidden from view by placement beneath a box lid. A Cloaking counter cannot represent (i.e., its Cloaking Box section may not contain) one or more "?".

       E1.41 & E1.411

1.411 SETUP: The Scenario Attacker sets up offboard (including the possible use of Dummy Cloaking counters). He is allotted one Cloaking counter for each squad-equivalent in his OB, either at start or (separately) as reinforcements.

       E1.41 & E1.411

       E1.411 & Chapter E Divider

1.42 MF & SW: A Cloaking counter has six MF, regardless of its contents. These MF cannot be increased by any method except road (B3.4) or downhill ski (4.31) bonus. Cloaked Infantry can portage four— or five— PP SW as if they were three-PP SW. Otherwise, Cloaked Infantry cannot portage more than its IPC. However, a SW ≥ four PP cannot be fired in the Player Turn it loses its Cloaked status. Cloaked SW must be dm if possible.

1.421 MF COSTS: All MF costs for a Cloaking counter are identical to daytime costs [EXC: a +1 DRM applies to the Falling DR (B11.41) of Climbing units during a night scenario]. When involuntarily revealed, Cloaked units are placed on board and must immediately revert to their normal MF allotments for any future movement undertaken in that MPh, minus any MF already expended in that MPh, but with no extra penalty if they had already exceeded such (see 1.51).

1.422 STACKING: All units represented by a single Cloaking counter always move/advance as a stack—unless the owner wishes to remove the Cloaking counter and replace it with the actual concealed unit(s). A Cloaking counter may not split into two or more Cloaking counters, although two or more Cloaking counters may combine into one. The inherent parts of a Cloaking counter can break into concealed units without removing the Cloaking counter, provided an original unit remains in the Cloaking Box. There is no limit to the number of Cloaking counters that can occupy a Location; however, when two or more Cloaking counters occupy the same Location, their owner must check their respective Cloaking Boxes to see if their contents merit Overstacking penalties. Cloaking/"?" is automatically lost if overstacked in the LOS of an unbroken enemy ground unit (A12.14).

1.423 HUMAN WAVE: All elements of a Human Wave attack lose Cloaked status.

1.43 LOSS: Cloaked status is lost, and replaced by its unconcealed actual contents (if any), for any situation that would cause one or more of its units to lose concealment at night (1.31; 1.72), and for making any attack other than a successful Ambush. Once removed, Cloaking counters cannot be regained.


1.5 MOVEMENT: E1.5 Movement Phase The rules governing daytime movement remain in effect at night except as altered below (and in 1.42).5

1.51 ON FOOT: Infantry/Cavalry [EXC: Infantry represented by a Cloaking counter; 1.41] during a night scenario must pay an additional MF (after all modifications) per each Concealment Terrain Location entered [EXC: if crossing a road hexside or using Bypass in an Open Ground hexside of an Obstacle hex; bocage (B9.5) does not make a Location Concealment Terrain for this purpose]. In addition, if such a unit's NVR is 0, it may not use Double Time, road bonus, or Gallop.

EX: A squad ascending a Crest Line and entering woods must expend five MF ({2 [entering woods] X 2 [moving to higher elevation] = 4} +1 [entering Concealment Terrain Location at night] = 5).


1.52 VEHICULAR: All vehicles must pay an additional MP/MF per hex-side crossed (or transited via VBM), added as if towing a Gun. In addition, if an AFV's NVR is 0, it may not expend MP while BU except to Stop [EXC: Passengers/Riders may unload as if the AFV had fired in the PFPh].

1.53 STRAYING:6 E1.53; E1.55 Straying At the start of its MPh, each onboard ground unit or stack wishing to move to a new hex in that MPh [EXC: 1.531] must first make a Movement DR (∆). If the colored dr of the Movement DR is a 6, that unit/stack is subject to Straying; otherwise, it can move normally. A Lax unit/stack automatically Strays if the colored dr of the Movement DR is a 6, a Normal unit/stack Strays only if the white dr of the Movement DR is ≥ 3, and a Stealthy unit/stack Strays only if the white dr of the Movement DR is ≥ 5. A unit/stack that must Stray immediately makes a Straying DR (∆), the colored dr of which indicates the Hex Grain Random Direction (B.8) that it must move along [EXC: Doubles may result in ATTACKER Jitter Fire, cancelling that move; see 1.55]. If insufficient MF/MP are available to Stray at least one hex in the indicated direction without Double Time, Minimum Move, or ESB, or if the next Location to be entered by the Strayer would require climbing, traversing a stairwell, fording, scaling, swimming, moving closer to a Known enemy unit, or entering an Illuminated/non-enterable Location (including movement off the map) or entering a HE/WP FFE Blast Area or if it would be subject to a Known minefield (B28.45) attack, the Strayer instead becomes TI in its present Location. Straying units may not use Double Time, leader bonus, ESB, Delay MP, etc. If the next hex to be entered by a Straying vehicle contains an obstacle that would require the vehicle to make a Bog DR, and the vehicle cannot Bypass that obstacle, that vehicle instead becomes TI in its present Location; this is the only instance in which a Straying vehicle may use a Stop MP. Otherwise, the unit continues to move in that direction until it runs out of MF/MP (thus requiring a vehicle to remain in Motion). If the first AFV to move in a radioless platoon Strays, the remainder of the platoon simply follows it using normal Platoon Movement.


       E1.53 & E1.531

       E.4, E1.53 & E1.6


1.531 EXCEPTIONS: A unit or stack that, at the start of its MPh, wishes to enter a sewer/tunnel, or move within the same hex or along a TB, or can see a Known enemy unit, or is currently on or ADJACENT to a trench/bunker/road/path/gully/stream/river bank or Illuminated Location, does not make a Movement DR until such time as it is no longer in or ADJACENT to such terrain (at which point it must immediately make a Movement DR if still moving). For LOS to Beach/OCEAN Locations see G13.2 & G13.84. Only the first unit to move as part of a Human Wave, Radioless AFV Platoon, Convoy, or Column is required to make a Movement DR unless it individually meets one of the previous exceptions—all others follow accordingly (11.6).


       E1.53 & E1.531

1.532 FRIENDLY CONTACT: Whenever a Straying Mover enters a Location that contains a Good Order friendly unit, it is no longer subject to Straying and the ATTACKER may use the remainder of its MF/MP in completing its MPh as he wishes.

1.533 BERSERK: A berserk unit is always Lax (even in daytime) but is not subject to Straying. If it can see a Known enemy unit, its charge is predetermined (A15.431); if not, it is not berserk (A15.44).

1.54 ROUTING: E1.54 Routing A broken unit does not rout normally at night, but instead, always uses Low Crawl and is never eliminated for Failure to Rout. A broken Inherent Crew still uses all of its RtPh to rout out of its vehicle into the same hex as per D5.311. A unit is captured or Surrenders at night only by CC or Mopping Up (even if Disrupted). A DM unit retains DM until its makes a Rally/Self-Rally Original DR ≤ its current printed morale. A broken unit may always Low Crawl during the RtPh (including out of enemy-occupied Locations, into marsh, while fording, and through tunnels) and does not have to Low Crawl towards any particular terrain type, but still may not rout toward a Known enemy unit.


       A10.62, A15., & E1.54

1.55 JITTER FIRE: E1.53; E1.55 Straying E1.55 Jitter Fire Jitter Fire cannot occur in a scenario until at least one Gunflash has been placed due to an attack vs an enemy unit. Thereafter, whenever a unit or stack makes a Straying DR (1.53) that results in Doubles, Jitter Fire can occur as follows:

Doubles DR



Closest DEFENDER Jitter Fires


Closest DEFENDER Jitter Fires unless Stealthy


Closest DEFENDER Jitter Fires unless Stealthy or Normal


Moving unit(s) Jitter Fires unless Cloaked, Stealthy or Normal


Moving unit(s) Jitter Fires unless Cloaked or Stealthy


Moving unit(s) Jitter Fires

       A12.11 & E1.55

1.551 UNIT DETERMINATION: The "Closest DEFENDER" is one or more Good Order non-hidden units in the nearest (in hexes) occupied hex to the moving unit(s)—ATTACKER'S choice in the case of equidistant hexes. If more than one applicable unit is able to Jitter Fire, all such applicable units are affected. Only MG and Small Arms fire are subject to Jitter Fire. Heroes, units with no FP (e.g., a leader without a functioning MG), units already marked with a Final Fire counter, and units marked with a First Fire counter and closer to a Known enemy unit than to the moving unit, are exempt from Jitter Fire. Should no unit in the closest occupied hex be able to Jitter Fire, none occurs. If a squad with a MG must Jitter Fire, both the squad's inherent FP and that of one of its MG are affected. However, a vehicle subject to Jitter Fire will fire only its MG armament and PRC. No LOS to another unit is necessary to activate Jitter Fire. Should a Dummy Cloaking counter be subject to Jitter Fire (as determined by the side's Majority Squad Type), it is eliminated. Moving Infantry, which cannot normally fire in its own MPh, can do so for Jitter Fire purposes only.

1.552 EFFECT: Jitter Fire has no effect on anyone other than the firer (i.e., placement of appropriate fire/Gunflash markers and attendant loss of Cloaking/concealment). A Jitter Fire attack is resolved only to determine ROF, malfunction/Low Ammo, and Sniper activation. Jitter Fire conducted by a moving unit cancels any remaining portion of its move.

1.56 RECOVERY: There is a +1 drm to all Recovery attempts (A4.44) at night.

1.6 LAX/NORMAL/STEALTHY: All units are classified as Lax, Stealthy, or Normal at night. Cloaking counters are considered equal to the Majority Squad Type of their side at Scenario start—regardless of actual contents. A SSR is the ultimate source of this definition, but the following general rules apply:

       E.4, E1.53 & E1.6


1.61 STEALTHY: At night, Stealthy units are generally those designated as Commando, Ranger, ANZAC, Gurkha, Elite/1st-Line Finns, Good Order SMC, or Partisan.

1.62 LAX: At night, Lax units include all Inexperienced, berserk, non-elite Italian/Axis Minor MMC, pre-1943 German MMC, motorized vehicles (and their PRC), and non-Good Order units.

1.63 NORMAL: At night, all other Good Order MMC are Normal, as are Good Order Lax units stacked with a Good Order SMC (even for purposes of Ambush; A11.18). Horses, Cavalry, and Animal-Drawn Transport are Normal (unless their Passengers/Riders are Lax).

1.7 COMBAT:7 E1.7-.88 Combat All night attacks [EXC: Fire Lanes, mines, Snipers, DC, Specific Collateral attacks, Residual FP, CC, and OBA] are subject to a +1 Low Visibility (LV) Hindrance DRM (which does not nullify a FFMO DRM; 3.1).8 However, the +1 Night LV DRM is never applicable in combination with any positive TEM due to HA or if the target hex contains any terrain (inclusive of hills/higher ground level) whose topmost height is at least a full level higher than the firer or if the target is claiming bocage TEM or is in the same hex as the firer. The Night LV DRM, LV Hindrances, and SMOKE DRM are all cumulative. The LV Hindrance DRM does not reduce the amount of Residual FP left in a hex.

EX: The attack of the 4-6-7 in 3R6 against the Russian 5-2-7 in T7 is subject to only a +1 DRM for the Woods TEM. An Attack by the 4-6-7 in T9 would also be subject to a +1 LOS Hindrance for firing through the grainfield (in season). The Night LV DRM does not apply to either attack because the topmost height of the T7 woods is 1 full level higher than the firers. If the 4-6-7 in R6 were on the first level of that building, the +1 LV DRM would apply to its attack because the topmost height of the T7 woods would not be a full level higher. If the Russian squad fires back at R6 the +1 LV DRM will not apply to its attack regardless of which level that 4-6-7 is on.

       B.10 & E1.7

       E1.7 & E9.3

1.71 FIRE LANE: At night, a Fire Lane Residual FP counter can be placed beyond the firer's NVR although the firer must still have a LOS to the moving initial target. [EXC: Once any starshell/IR has been fired, a MG can place a Fire Lane without firing at any moving target if it can place a Fire Lane Residual FP counter in a Location that is Bore Sighted by that MG; however, if it does so it must thereafter place (if otherwise able to do so) a Fire Lane to that Location in every enemy MPh (and must do so before the ATTACKER begins moving his first unit in that MPh) until the start of an enemy MPh in which it can see a Known enemy unit. The firer must make an IFT DR to check for malfunction/cowering/SAN. Once that MG's Bore Sighting advantage has been lost, it cannot thereafter use this Bore Sighted type of Fire Lane.]

1.72 SNIPERS: An effective Sniper attack (dr 1 or 2) removes any Cloaking counter it attacks and places its contents onboard unconcealed. Random Selection is then used (if necessary) to determine which of those contents are affected by that Sniper attack.

1.73 TO HIT: When a unit enters another unit's NVR it is treated as emerging from a Blind Hex for that latter unit's To Hit purposes.

1.74 TARGET ACQUISITION: Target Acquisition DRM (C6.5) are NA at night unless the target is Illuminated. Remove all Acquired Target counters from a target/Location as soon as it loses such Illuminated status. Thus, a target Illuminated only by a Starshell/IR loses all Acquired Target Status when the Starshell/IR is removed at the end of each Player Turn. Only a target Illuminated by a Blaze/Flame at the end of a Player Turn can remain Acquired from one Player Turn to the next.

1.75 FG: Multi-Location FG are not allowed at night.

1.76 MISTAKEN FIRE: E1.76 Mistaken Fire The printed (or recorded, for DYO; H1.29) SAN of each side in a night scenario is increased by two (up to a maximum of 7) in actual play, due to random mistaken fire. The actual SAN can never be reduced below the printed (or recorded) SAN in a night scenario; Sniper Checks can reduce it only to the printed number. In addition, anytime a captured MG is fired at night, its Location is subjected to an automatic sniper attack dr.9

1.77 CC: E1.77 Close Combat During a night scenario, the ATTACKER's Ambush dr need be only at least two less than the DEFENDER'S to gain Ambush (A11.4) status unless Illuminated.

1.8 GUNFLASHES: Gunflashes are not a form of Illumination. However, any unit that fires (regardless of its B#/X# DR, or Illumination, or NVR) reveals its Location (but not necessarily itself) to any unit with a LOS to it, regardless of NVR. This allows units to fire at a Location that contains a Prep/ Bounding/First/Final/Intensive/No/Opportunity Fire or Melee counter as long as that counter remains in view, even if it is beyond the firer's NVR.10 This remains true even if any/all the units have in the meantime left the Gunflash Location and others have entered it. During night scenarios, First/Final Fire counters are left in the Locations where they were originally placed until the end of the AFPh. All types of Gunflashes not marked automatically by the proper fire counter (1.83-.86) can be marked by placement of a generic Gunflash counter.

EX: A MG using Prep Fire and maintaining its ROF is marked with a Gunflash counter.

1.81 BEYOND NVR: Fire at/observation of a Gunflash beyond the firer's NVR is treated as occurring vs a concealed target [EXC: if the target can be treated as being within NVR, as per 1.101]—regardless, of whether or not the target is physically covered by a "?" or represented by a Cloaking counter. Therefore, firing at a concealed unit that is also marked by a Gunflash is subject to halving only once—not twice—for concealment.

1.82 CC: CC causes a Gunflash for as long as it is covered by a Melee counter.

1.83 MINES: Mines cause a Gunflash only if they cause Casualty Reduction, or break, immobilize, or eliminate a non-Dummy unit.

1.84 MOL/FT: A MOL/FT attack creates a Gunflash in the Location actually attacked by the weapon. A FT also creates a Gunflash in its own Location.

1.85 DC/ATMM: A DC/ATMM causes a Gunflash only if the DC detonates or the ATMM causes damage to a vehicle.

1.86 SEARCHING/MOPPING UP: Searching/Mopping Up causes a Gunflash in all of the affected concealed/broken DEFENDER'S Locations, provided the Searcher suffers Casualty Reduction (A12.154).

1.87 SR/FFE: All hexes in the Blast Area of a HE FFE are considered marked by Gunflashes. A SR is not a Gunflash, but can be seen by Observers (only) regardless of NVR.

1.88 PIAT: A fired PIAT does not create a Gunflash.

1.89 dm/RADIO/SPOTTING/AMMO-VEHICLE: Neither dismantling/assembling a SW, Spotting (C9.3), nor use of a radio/phone or an Ammo Vehicle's B# benefit (10.2) cause a Gunflash. Do not place a Prep Fire or Final Fire counter for such actions at Night despite the fact that the unit has indeed fired.

1.9 ILLUMINATION:11 Illumination can occur via Starshell/IR or Fires—none of which create daylight conditions. Night rules remain in effect in an Illuminated Location [EXC: Cloaking/"?" is lost more readily (1.31); an Illuminated Location is treated as being within the NVR of all units that otherwise have a LOS to it; Illuminated units can see only Gunflashes and into Illuminated Locations; 1.101].

1.91 INITIAL USE: No Starshells/IR may be fired in a scenario until one of three events has occurred:

•    while the friendly force has no motorized vehicle onboard an enemy motorized vehicle changes its hex or its VCA within 16 hexes of a friendly unit that is currently capable of firing a Starshell/IR (or Spotting/Observing for an IR-capable firer) and fires a Starshell/IR; or

•    a friendly unit currently capable of firing a Starshell/IR (or Spotting/Observing for an IR-capable firer) has a LOS to an enemy unit and fires a Starshell/IR; or

•    a Gunflash is placed due to an enemy FFE or an attack vs an enemy unit.

Once a Starshell/IR has been fired, both sides are free to fire either type (within applicable restrictions).




1.92 STARSHELLS: E1.92-.93 Starshells/IR Starshells may be fired in either the PFPh or Defensive First Fire/DFPh by the player performing that phase's functions (placement during Defensive First Fire can occur without seeing a moving enemy unit). In the allowable phase, one attempt to fire a Starshell may be made per hex by one friendly leader, one friendly CE AFV, or one friendly MMC in that hex.

       E1.92 & E1.93

1.921 USAGE RESTRICTIONS: A unit must be in Good Order and neither Aerial nor in a pillbox nor pinned nor TI to fire a Starshell. Before a leader (including a CE Armor Leader) can fire a Starshell during that Player Turn, he must first make a Usage dr (∆) of ≤ 4. Before a CE AFV with no Armor Leader, or a MMC, can fire a Starshell, it must first make a Usage dr (∆) of ≤ 2.12 In addition, after the Player Turn in which the first Starshell/IR of the scenario is fired, any unit [EXC: a leader] that fires a Starshell must do so at the start of the PFPh/enemy MPh before the ATTACKER commences firing/moving during that phase. Firing a Starshell (only) has no effect on the firer's ability to perform other actions, and does not cause a Gunflash or loss of the firer's concealment [EXC: a hidden or Cloaked unit that fires a Starshell must be placed on board beneath a "?"]. A Starshell cannot be fired from inside an Interior Building Hex/subterranean Location, nor can it Illuminate such.


1.922 PLACEMENT: A player has three choices after his unit passes its Starshell Usage dr, but must announce his choice before making the Starshell/TR placement dr/DR.

1.  He can initially place the Starshell in its firer's hex; he then makes a Random Direction dr (B.8) and moves the Starshell one hex in that direction, which is its final placement hex.

2.  If the Starshell firer has a LOS to a Gunflash, or to a Known enemy unit that is < nine hexes away from the firer, he can initially place the Starshell either in that target's hex or along the firer's LOS to it; in both cases the Starshell's maximum initial placement range is six hexes from the firer. He then makes a Random Direction DR, with the white Extent of Error dr halved (FRU), to find the Starshell's final placement hex. After this method has been declared, a free LOS check can be made; if no LOS exists, then method 3 must be used to fire the Starshell.

3. He can initially place the Starshell in any hex that is exactly three hexes away from the firer. He then makes a Random Direction DR (with no halving of the white Extent of Error dr) to find the Starshell's final placement hex.

EX: A leader in 13I4, having "heard gunfire" and suspecting an enemy assault on the bridge in K6 (even though he can't see any Known enemy units), opts to fire a Starshell toward the bridge. The DEFENDER picks K6 as the initial placement hex, and then makes a Starshell Placement DR which is a colored 5 and a white 3, resulting in the Starshell counter being finally placed in H7. Had the Elevated Road in K6 not blocked the LOS to K7, the Gunflash in K7 would have allowed the DEFENDER to halve the Extent of Error dr so as to place the Starshell in I7.

1.923 EFFECTS & DURATION: A Starshell Illuminates all non-subterranean and non-Interior building Locations [EXC: Dense-Jungle (G2.2)/Bamboo] within three hexes (even vs Aerial counters) even if it is placed offboard. Temporarily butt any unused board to the map edge to mark the placement of an offboard Starshell. Starshells are removed at the end of each CCPh after placement of "?".

1.93 ILLUMINATING ROUNDS (IR): IR may be fired only via Indirect Fire, and only by OBA/onboard mortars that have IR listed as an available ammo type.


       E1.92 & E1.93

1.931 USAGE: No Usage dr is necessary for OBA to fire IR. However, the firer of an onboard mortar must make a Usage dr of ≤ 4 before he can fire an IR (failure of which is not considered firing), and in order to fire it he must make a To Hit DR (only to check for malfunction/Low-Ammo/SAN). Firing one IR uses all of a mortar's/OBA's ROF for that Player Turn; therefore, neither type of firer may use another ammo type during a Player Turn in which it fires an IR (when an onboard mortar fires an IR, cover the mortar with a No Fire counter). An onboard mortar firing an IR (or malfunctioning) does cause a Gunflash (and can cause loss of concealment as per the normal rules for that weapon). When OBA is used to fire an IR, the owning player must still have Radio Contact and Battery Access, but FFE:1/2/C status is kept track of offboard (for Battery Access purposes), and each chit used solely to fire IR is reshuffled into the pile when that Fire Mission is completed. OBA fires IR in the same fashion as a SR—never as a FFE.  IR Missions must be declared prior to the Mission's first Battery Access Draw. [errata included]

1.932 PLACEMENT: If the mortar/Spotter/Observer has a LOS to a Gunflash/Known enemy unit, method 2 of 1.922 may be used to place the IR. [EXC: The maximum initial placement range (six hexes) and maximum range to the Known enemy unit (nine hexes) of method 2 do not apply to IR. An onboard mortar must have its initial placement hex within its normal range limits (C2.25).] Otherwise, method 3 of 1.922 is used [EXC: instead of placing the IR three hexes away from the firer, it is placed in any hex (within the mortar's normal range) that is exactly six (or some whole multiple of six) hexes away from the mortar/Spotter/Observer]. A mortar's To Hit DR automatically results in IR placement unless it malfunctions, in which case the IR is not placed. The initial placement hex of an IR fired by an onboard mortar does not have to be in the mortar's CA and the CA cannot change as a result of firing IR.

1.933 EFFECTS & DURATION: An IR Illuminates all non-subterranean and non-Interior Building Locations [EXC: Dense-Jungle/Bamboo; G2.4] within six hexes.13 It is otherwise treated like a Starshell (1.923).

1.94 FIRES: E1.94 Fires All Blazes cast an Illuminated Zone whose range from the Blaze's hex is equal to twice the number of Blazing levels (excluding Rooftops) in that hex. A hex containing a Blaze is Illuminated at all levels (even vs Aerial counters), as is any hex within the Blaze's Illuminated Zone [EXC: Blind Hexes; 1.941]. Fires may not be deliberately set at night unless allowed by SSR. Any attempt to Kindle a Fire automatically causes loss of the Kindler's concealment and a Gunflash if within the LOS of any Good Order enemy ground unit—regardless of range.

EX: Vehicle, brush, orchard, wheatfield, woods, and single-story building Blazes all have a two-hex Illumination range. A two-story house casts a four-hex Illumination range if both levels contain Blazes. A building of level 2 or 3 has an Illumination zone of six- or eight-hex-range respectively if all levels are ablaze.

       E1.94, E1.941 & R4.1

1.941 SHADOWS: Terrain obstacles of ≥ one level within the Illuminated Zone of a Blaze cause quasi-Blind Hexes in the sense that the obstacle blocks the Illumination of those hexes. Any such LOS obstacle in a Blaze's Illuminated Zone therefore creates a non-illuminated hex(es) behind it, just as if each Blaze counter were instead a viewing unit whose LOS to those hexes was blocked by that obstacle.

       E1.94, E1.941 & R4.1


1.942 FLAME: A Flame Illuminates only its own Location.

1.95 TRIP FLARES: During setup for a 1944-5 PTO night scenario involving a U.S. Scenario Defender, the U.S. player may assign a number of trip flares (up to the number available in his OB) to any jungle/bamboo/wire/panji Locations.13A He does this by secretly recording the grid coordinate of each such hex and the number of trip flares set up therein. Each time any, even a friendly, non-Dummy (determined as per A12.11) ground unit/stack enters, expends additional MF/MP in or Searches (1.953), a Location that currently contains any trip flare(s), the player owning the trip flare(s) immediately makes a dr (∆) [EXC: no dr is made if the unit/stack is entering (or entering the Location via) a trench/pillbox/subterranean passage, or is entering the Location via a path/TB created during play, or if the MF/MP expenditure is made for Stopping, Delay or placing SMOKE; for panjis see also G9.121]. During the MPh, one dr is made for each separate qualifying MF/MP expenditure (not for each such MF/MP expended), and is made before Defensive First Fire is conducted. The only possible drm is a -4, which applies if during the current Player Turn the unit/stack entered the hex using (or is Searching "across" a hexside that contains) a road or a path that was not created during play. If the Final dr is ≤ the number of trip flares currently in that Location, a trip flare has been set off and a Trip Flare counter is placed therein.

1.951 EFFECTS: A Trip flare counter Illuminates the ground-level Location of its own hex and all Accessible ground-level Locations, including all pillboxes in those hexes [EXC: if placed in/IN a Depression, it can Illuminate IN an Accessible Depression hex only if those two hexes share a Depression hexside]. Each Trip Flare counter placed onboard during the MPh is placed with its red-on-white side face-up, and is removed at the end of that Player Turn's CCPh after the placement of "?"; each placed during a RtPh/APh/CCPh is placed with its purple-on-white side face-up, and is removed at the end of the next Player Turn's AFPh (along with First/Final Fire counters; 1.8). The MF/MP expenditure that sets off a trip flare is considered to have been made in an Illuminated Location. A set-off trip flare is equivalent to a fired starshell for the purpose of allowing Fire Lanes vs Bore Sighted hexes (1.71) and the subsequent use of starshells/IR (1.9).

1.952 ELIMINATION: Once a trip flare has been set off, the number of them remaining in that hex is reduced by one (or by two if the flare was set off by a vehicle and the -4 drm applied). All trip flares in the hex are eliminated by an Original KIA DR caused by a HE FFE Concentration; an Original K DR by such an attack eliminates one trip flare in that hex. Vs Bombardment, trip flares have a morale of 7 and must take a NMC; one trip flare in the Bombarded hex is eliminated for every multiple of one by which that MC is failed. Elimination by FFE/Bombardment does not cause trip flare Illumination.

1.953 SEARCH & RECON: A Search/Recon (A12.152/1.23) vs a hex reveals the presence, but not the number, of trip flares therein. In addition, when a hex that contains a trip flare is Searched, a separate trip flare dr is made for that hex as if the Searcher were entering it (1.95), but ignoring the presence of all entrenchments, TB and paths.