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Advanced Squad Leader Rulebook Updated and Erraticized


11.1 Cave Counters are Fortifications that are available only to the Japanese.22 They may be set up only prior to the start of the scenario, with a theoretical maximum of six per hex (i.e., one per hexside, as determined by their CA; 11.12). Each Cave counter represents a separate subterranean Location (referred to hereafter as a cave), with its own above-ground entrance, in/IN its hex. Caves are both Rally-Bonus (A10.61) and Concealment (A12.12) Terrain [EXC: see 11.33]. For cave setup purposes see also 11.91.

A Cave counter may be set up either IN a Depression (including a Sunken Road or Hill Depression; B4.2 and B19.5), or in a non-Depression (including an Elevated Road; B5.21) hex that shares a hill/cliff Crest Line hexside with another hex whose Base Level is lower than the Base Level of the Cave counter's hex; however, no Cave counter may be set up in a building, rubble, marsh, swamp or Water Obstacle hex or IN a non-dry stream. Each Cave counter set up in a non-Depression hex must have its arrow pointing across a hill/cliff Crest Line hexside (of its hex) to the center dot of an adjacent lower-Base-Level hex that contains no Irrigated-paddy/sand/marsh/swamp/water-(even a hexside pond) whose level is ≥ that cave's level (11.11). Each Cave counter set up IN a Depression must have its arrow pointing directly away from a non-Depression hexside (of its hex) whose other common hex has a Base Level (or Crest level— whichever is higher) > that cave's level, and that arrow must also point across a Depression (including a Crest-Line-Depression; B19.5) hexside to an adjacent Depression hex. In all cases, the hexside a Cave counter's arrow points to is called its CA Hexside. No two caves in the same hex may have the same CA Hexside. If a cave is set up in a non-Depression hex, the other hex common to its CA Hexside is termed its Entrance Hex. If a cave is set up IN a Depression, its own hex is its Entrance Hex.

Only Infantry-(including Dummies){J10}/SW/a-non-vehicular-Gun may be set up in a cave. The non-hidden contents of a cave are placed onboard beneath that Cave counter, while all above-ground contents of the hex are placed (and considered to be) above all Cave counters in that hex.

11.11 LEVEL: The cave's elevation level is determined as follows. If the Cave counter is set up:

11.111  IN a Depression, the cave's level equals the Base Level of its Entrance Hex;

11.112  in a non-Depression hex and its CA Hexside is a non-cliff hex-side or a one-level cliff, the cave's level equals the Base Level (or Crest level—whichever is higher) of its Entrance Hex;

11.113 in a non-Depression hex and its CA Hexside is a cliff hexside ≥ two levels high, the cave's level is chosen by the Cave counter's owner but must be ≥ the Base Level (or Crest level—whichever is higher) of its Entrance Hex and < the Base Level of the Cave counter's hex. A cave set up in this manner should use the side of a Cave counter with "L0", "L1", "L2" or "L3" on it, to indicate the cave's actual level (see the 11.6 illustration). If a cave's level is > the Base Level (or Crest Level—whichever is higher) of its Entrance Hex, that cave is termed an Upper-Cliff cave.

EX: Up to five caves may be set up in 25F7, with each using a different hexside of that hex as its CA Hexside; however, hexside F7-G7 cannot be used as a CA Hexside because it is not a hill/cliff Crest Line hexside. Each cave in F7 would be at Level 2 (11.112).

Only one cave may be set up IN F6, and only if F6-E7 is its CA Hexside; this cave would be at Level 1 (11.111), and F6 would be its Entrance Hex (11.1). No cave may be set up IN F6 with F6-G7 as its CA Hexside, because the Base Level of hex E6 (Level 1) would not be higher than that Level 1 cave (11.1). For the same reason, no cave may be set up IN G7.

Two caves may be set up IN E8: one with E8-D7 as its CA Hexside and the other using E8-E9 for its CA Hexside; both would be at Level 1.

No cave may be set up IN E9, because such a cave would not have ita arrow pointing away from hexside E9-D8 or E9-F8 while simultaneously having E9-E8 or E9-E10 as its CA Hexside (11.1).

A cave in I7 with I7-H7 as its CA Hexside (thus making H7 its Entrance Hex) may be set up at Level 2 or 3 at its owner's option (11.113); if set up at Level 3 it would be an Upper-Cliff cave.


EX: Two caves may be set up in 36I4 (one with I4-H3, the other with I4-H4, as its CA Hexside)—but only if the stream is not flooded. If it is flooded, the water level in hexes H3 and H4 would be Level 0, thus equalling the level of any caves in I4 and thereby prohibiting their setup in that hex. Likewise, no cave may be set up in I4 with I4-I3 as its CA Hexside because I3 is Level 0 marsh.

A cave set up in K4 with K4-L4 as its CA Hexside is at Level 1; if its CA Hexside were any other hexside of K4 [EXC: hexside K4-K3, which is NA as a CA Hexside], the cave would be at Level 2.

A cave in K2 with K2-J1 (or K2-K1) as its CA Hexside must be at Level 0 despite the two-level elevation change along its CA Hexside (11.112).

A cave may be set up in J4 with J4-I4 as its CA Hexside even though J4-I4 is a road hexside.


11.12 COVERED ARC: The arrow on each Cave counter indicates the direction of its CA, which differs significantly from a normal (C3.2) CA in that it comprises the cave's Entrance Hex plus the area between (and including) an extension of the two hexspines of that Cave counter's hex that touch the vertices of its CA Hexside. The CA of a Cave counter excludes all (even Aerial) Locations in that Cave counter's hex, other than that of the cave itself [EXC: the CA of a Cave counter IN a Depression includes the area IN its hex]. A hex half in and half out of a cave's CA is considered to be completely within that CA for the purposes of C.5B only, even though part of that hex actually is outside that CA. A Cave counter can never have its CA changed during play, and must have it recorded when set up using HIP. For the CA of a Gun in a cave, see 11.92.

EX: The CA of caves A (at Level 3 in its Level 4 hex) and B (at Level 2 IN its hex) are shown by the white lines. A unit at ≥ Level 4 in hex 25BB5 is not within the CA of cave A. Infantry in Crest status in DD2 is within cave A's CA only if the word "Crest" on the counter lies along hexside DD2-DD3 or DD2-EE3. A vehicle in Crest status (F5.42) in DD2 is not within cave A's CA if its Crest CAFP is at either vertex of hexside DD2-CC2. Above-ground Infantry IN BB6 are within cave B's CA, but would not be if they were in Crest status.

EX: The CA of cave C includes hex U1 except for hexsides U1-T1, U1-T0 and U1-U2 [EXC: its CA does include vertices U1-V1-U2 and U1-T0-U0].

11.2 CAVE COMPLEXES: Cave Complexes are Fortifications that are available only to the Japanese. Up to 25% (FRD) of the original number (see 11.91) of Cave counters in the Japanese OB may be considered Primary Cave counters. Each Primary Cave counter has an associated Cave Complex that abstractly represents a series of underground passageways extending from the cave's Location, thus enabling Japanese Infantry to move unseen from one point to another. Each Cave Complex comprises the hex that contains its Primary Cave counter plus any/all other hexes within two hexes of that counter [EXC: no hex containing any Irrigated-paddy/-sand/marsh/swamp/Water-Obstacle-(including a hexside pond)/non-dry-stream may ever be a Cave Complex hex, nor may a Cave Complex extend past any such hex(es) (or past any sunken/elevated road hex[es]) so as to isolate any hex(es) of that Complex from the rest of its hexes; Cave Complexes may not overlap (i.e., each hex that would be inside the boundaries of ≥ two Cave Complexes must be assigned {on the CCSS; 11.32} to just one of them)]. No Primary Cave counter may be set up in an elevated road hex. Each Cave Complex is both Rally-Bonus and Concealment Terrain, and is considered one multi-hex, subterranean Location separate from all other Locations (even pillbox/cave Locations set up within its boundaries). Only Infantry-(including Dummies){J10}/SW/non-vehicular-Gun(s) may be set up in a Cave Complex.

11.3 HIP: Cave counters, as well as their contents, are always considered to be in Concealment Terrain regardless of the other terrain in their hex and always set up hidden. Cave Complexes and their contents always set up hidden. HIP for caves, Cave Complexes, and their contents is in addition to all other HIP allowed to the Japanese side. Normal rules for HIP and HIP-loss apply to Cave counters (A12.33/E1.16/G.2) and their contents except as stated otherwise (see 11.31 and 11.75). A Cave counter set up in a jungle, kunai or bamboo hex is considered to occupy that terrain type for the purposes of G.2, provided its CA Hexside is not also a cliff hexside. When a Cave counter is revealed it is placed onboard, but its hidden contents are not unless their "?" -loss action revealed that Cave counter [EXC: Searching; 11.33].

11.31 HIDDEN ACTIONS: Currently hidden Infantry (and their SW/Gun/prisoner[s]), even if not originally set up using HIP and even if not in Good Order, that conduct a "?"-loss activity to-enter/while-in a cave or Cave Complex remain hidden if no Good Order enemy ground unit within 16 hexes currently has a LOS to them. If they remain hidden, that activity is indicated in their Cloaking Box (see 11.32) in the proper manner but need not be announced to the opponent.23

11.32 CAVE-COMPLEX SETUP SHEET (CCSS): The hidden setup of caves, Cave Complexes, and their contents is recorded on the CCSS by their owner, using the symbols on the next page. Each hidden Cave counter (and its contents) is set up in the Cloaking Box whose ID letter corresponds to that of the Cave counter. The contents of each Cave Complex are set up in the Cloaking Box whose two-letter ID corresponds to the single-letter ID of that Complex's Primary Cave counter. Each cave's ID letter is recorded in the proper hex on the CCSS to show its hidden onboard position.


A, B, etc.   Cloaking Box ID of hidden unit/stack

#A-B, #A-P, #A-T A-B (14.53), A-P or A-T mines ("#" indicates strength)

ATD/A      Antitank Ditch ("A" indicates Cloaking Box ID of counter and its occupants, if any)

BS/A    Bore Sighted Location ("A" indicates Cloaking Box ID of weapon)

  Û         Indicates weapon CA (point to hexspine)

Cave ("/\" points to center of hex from vertices of CA Hexside; "#" indicates level; "A" indicates ID of Cave counter and Cloaking Box ID of it and its occupants)— for a Primary cave, record all this in red

--------------    Cave Complex boundary (draw along hexsides)

Crest counter (arrow indicates hexside aligned with word "Crest"; "A" indicates Cloaking Box ID of counter and its occupants)

DC/A     Indicates Set DC (use "A-TDC/A'' for Japanese A-T Set DC)—"A" indicates ID of controlling unit

F/A        Foxhole ("A" indicates Cloaking Box ID of counter and its occupants)

FL#       Fortified Building Location ("#" indicates Fortified level[s]; "0" for ground level, etc.)

Panji Covered hexside

Pillbox (arrow indicates CA; "A" indicates Cloaking Box ID of counter and its occupants)

P-R/A     Pre-Registered hex ("A" indicates ID of OBA battery)

Roadblock (arrow indicates roadblock hexside)

S/A    Sangar ("A" indicates Cloaking Box ID of counter and its occupants)

 Tetrahedron (14.51)

T/A     Trench ("A" indicates Cloaking Box ID of counter and its occupants)

------------         Tunnel (draw to/from center dots)

O#       Above-ground tunnel entrance/exit ("#" indicates level)

˜         Subterranean tunnel entrance/exit


X                   Denotes an eliminated Fortification


Buy A:____mm    Buy B:____mm    Buy C:____mm    Buy D:____mm

Avalon Hill grants permission to photocopy this sheet for personal use.

11.321 Other hidden Fortifications may be recorded on the CCSS, as may units and weapons using normal HIP. Additional symbols for these are shown on the preceding page.

EX: The diagram on the sample CCSS shows the hidden setup of the Japanese side on board 36. Assume streams to be shallow. The triangles represent hidden caves A-H, whose counters and occupants set up in Cloaking Boxes A-H respectively. Caves A and G are Primary caves, and their two Cave Complexes (referred to as AA and GG respectively) are shown. Cloaking Box AA will be used to hold Cave Complex AA's occupants, and Cloaking Box GG will hold those in Complex GG. A hidden pillbox is also present, with its CA centered on hexspine Y6-Y7 and its counter and occupants in Cloaking Box I. The pillbox's Inherent tunnel (1.632) leads into Complex AA. A second (SSR-designated, for the purpose of the example) tunnel runs (as per 11.933) from Complex AA to above-ground in hex T6. Caves E and F are within the boundaries of neither Complex. If cave G were set up in W8, the boundaries of Complex GG could (but would not need to) have been drawn to include hex(es) W6/X6 and thus the pillbox/its-tunnel, provided those hexes were not also part of Complex AA. Note that neither Cave Complex contains any marsh/swamp/stream hex; nor are hexes V10, X10and Y10 part of Cave Complex GG, because they would be isolated from the rest of that Complex (11.2).

11.33 SEARCH & RECON: A Search successfully conducted vs a hidden Cave counter's hex— even by a unit not in the cave's CA—reveals all Cave counters in that hex and their contents as per A12.152. A Recon (E1.23) conducted vs a hidden Cave counter's hex reveals all Cave counters in that hex but not their contents (11.3). Search/Recon cannot be used vs a Cave-Complex/its-contents. A cave does not invoke the +2 Search drm given in 1.63; i.e., it is not considered Concealment Terrain vs a Search.

11.4 STACKING: Each cave has a stacking capacity of one squad-equivalent (Overstacking can still occur), separate from (i.e., in addition to) normal hex stacking limits. This is indicated on each Cave counter by the lefthand numeral in its Strength Factor. For Guns in caves see also 11.92. The stacking limits of a Cave Complex equal twice the number of Cave counters originally set up within its boundaries. Overstacking can occur in a Cave Complex [EXC: NA during setup; A5.1], but no unbroken unit/stack may enter an already-Overstacked Complex if its entry would increase the squad-equivalency therein. All units and equipment in the same Cave Complex are assumed to be stacked together. Note that Infantry in the cave(s)/tunnel(s)/pillbox(es) within the boundaries of a Cave Complex are not part of that Complex and so do not count towards its stacking limits.EX: See the 11.321 illustrations. Cave Complex AA has a stacking limit of eight, while that of Cave Complex GG is four, squad-equivalents. If Complex AA already contains ≥ 8½ squad-equivalents, no other unbroken Infantry may enter it during any phase [EXC: ≤ four SMC could enter, provided none would be further increasing the squad equivalency therein as per A5.5].

EX: This illustration shows the main board-36 area represented on the sample CCSS, and what it would look like if the hidden pillbox and caves were all revealed.

11.5 LOS: LOS to/from a cave is traced to/from the cave hex's center dot and the cave's level, but can exist only if traced entirely within that cave's CA (exclusive of its CA Hexside vertices only if the cave is IN a Depression; see B19.51). Hence no LOS exists between different caves in the same hex, nor between the Aerial and cave Location(s) of the same hex, nor between a cave and the above-ground Base-Level Location of its new-Depression hex. Barring other LOS obstructions, LOS may be traced within the CA of a cave in a non-Depression hex to/from an elevation lower than the cave's if its Entrance Hex contains no terrain (including a Crest Line) whose obstacle height along that LOS is > that cave's level. No LOS ever exists to/from a Cave Complex, but always exists between units in the same Complex. If a cave's CA Hexside is also a cliff hexside, no LOS exists between that cave and a Climbing unit at a vertex of that CA Hexside and at a different level than that cave.

EX: See the 11.12 illustrations. There is no LOS between a unit at ≥ Level 4 in 25BB5 and the occupants of caves A and B, nor does a LOS exist between units occupying different caves in BB5 (or IN BB6, if > one cave were allowed therein). The occupants of caves A and B have no LOS to each other. Despite the fact that cave A is at Level 3, its occupants do have a LOS across the Crest Line in hex CCS to CC4, DD4, DD5, etc. [EXC: EE4 and FF3 are Blind Hexes (A6.4; A6.43; B11.21); their LOS does not exist INTO DD2, EE2 or FF2 (A6.3), nor to the Crest level of DD2 on the "hex CC2/DD1" side of the Depression (11.12)]. The occupants of cave B have a LOS only INTO their own hex, into and INTO CC7, to FF7, and to Climbing unit(s) at Level 2 in FF8/GG7 at vertex FF7-EE8-EE7/FF7-FF6-GG7. There is no LOS between a unit in cave B and the Crest level of DD6 (B19.51), nor between a unit in CC6 (or AA6) and either cave. No LOS exists from a unit in cave C to hexsides 36U1-T1 and 36U1-U2 [EXC: vertex U1-V1-U2 is in its LOS].

EX: See the first 11.6 illustration. A unit in cave G has no LOS to a unit Climbing at vertex T4-S5-S4 (or T4-T5-S5) and at a level other than Level 1. A Climbing unit at Level 0 on vertex T4-S5-S4 is in the LOS of a unit in cave A; and a Climbing unit at Level 2 on vertex T4-T5-S5 is in the LOS of a unit in cave M.

       G11.5 & G11.51

11.51 CONTINUOUS SLOPE: If the LOS from a unit in a cave whose CA Hexside is also a hill (only) Crest Line hexside lies along a Continuous Slope when disregarding the Cave counter's hex, then a Continuous Slope is considered to exist from that cave along that LOS.

EX: See the first 11.12 illustration. Despite the fact that cave A is at Level three in hex BBS, the LOS from that cave to FF5 lies along a Continuous Slope.

       G11.5 & G11.51

11.52 RIGHT OF INSPECTION: The contents of a cave/Cave-Complex may not be inspected by the opponent, but he can demand verification of an action taken by a unit in a cave (only).

11.6 ADJACENT/ACCESSIBLE: Each cave is Accessible to all other caves that lie in/IN the same hex with it and within one level of it. Each cave is also Accessible to the Cave Complex (if any) whose boundaries it is set up within. Each Cave Complex is Accessible to each cave set up within its boundaries, to each other Complex it touches (i.e., shares ≥ one common hexside with), and to each other Location connected to it by a tunnel (11.933) [EXC: despite being defined as Accessible, a Cave Complex cannot be entered during the APh from another Cave Complex that touches it; 11.73]. A unit is ADJACENT to a cave if Japanese Infantry in/IN that unit's Location would have a LOS to that cave and could advance directly into it.

EX: See the 11.321 illustrations. Caves B and C are Accessible to each other. Cave Complex AA is Accessible to caves A, B, C and D, to both tunnels (and thus also to the pillbox and hex T6; 11.933) and to Cave Complex GG—and vice-versa. Caves A, D, E, F, G and H are not Accessible to each other, nor to caves B or C; however, cave G and Complex GG are Accessible to each other, as are Complex GG and cave H. Caves E and F are not Accessible to either Complex. An Allied unit in W5 is considered ADJACENT to caves B and D even though it could not advance into those caves (see 11.7).

EX: Cave A is at Level 0; cave G is at Level 1; cave M is at Level 2. Caves A and G are Accessible to each other, and caves G and M are Accessible to each other, but Caves A and M are not.

EX: Caves J, K and L are all Accessible to each other. Only an above-ground unit IN H5 is ADJACENT to those caves.

11.7 CAVE ENTRY: A cave may be entered from above-ground only from its Entrance Hex, and from below-ground only from an Accessible (11.6) cave/Cave-Complex. Only Japanese Infantry (and their SW/Manhandled-Gun/Guarded-prisoner[s]/Dummies{J10}) may enter a cave [EXC: a Gun may enter a cave only from an Accessible Cave Complex; 11.76], and their normal cost to do so is two MF [EXC: see 11.751]. Entry of an Upper-Cliff cave (11.113) from above-ground requires Climbing (B11.4).

EX: See the 11.321 illustrations, and assume no hidden movement (11.751). Cave C can be entered only from hex X4 (at a cost of two MF), from cave B (at a cost of two MF), or from Cave Complex AA (at a cost of two MF). Caves A and D can be entered only from Y5 or W5 respectively, or from Complex AA.. Cave G can be entered only from W10 or from Cave Complex GG. Cave F can be entered only from Z7. Cave E can be entered only from Z5 [EXC: not from the bridge Location; B6.4]. See also the 11.71 example.


11.71 SAME-HEX ENTRY: Entry of a cave from an Accessible (11.6) cave in the same non-Depression hex costs one additional MF per level change [EXC: see 11.751]. Entry of a cave IN a Depression is possible from above-ground only from IN that Cave counter's hex. Infantry in a cave IN a Depression who wish to enter another cave IN that same hex must first exit to above-ground IN that hex (see 11.72), and then make a separate MF expenditure to enter the other cave [EXC: see 11.751]. They may do this even during the APh if otherwise allowed.

EX: See the 11.6 illustrations, and assume no hidden movement (11.751). Cave A can be entered only from S4 (at a cost of two MF) or from cave G (at a cost of three MF). Cave G can be entered from cave A or cave M, or from T4 by Infantry that Climb up to Level 1 along hex-side T4-S5, or from S5 by Infantry that Climb down to Level 1 along that same hexside. Cave M can be entered from cave G, or from T5 by Infantry that Climb up to Level 2 along hexside T5-S5, or from S5 by Infantry that Climb down to Level 2 along that same hexside. Infantry in cave J, K or L may enter any other cave IN that hex at a cost of three MF; see 11.72.

11.72 CAVE EXIT: Infantry in a cave in a non-Depression hex exit directly to above-ground by crossing that cave's CA Hexside to its Entrance Hex; normal hex-entry principles and MF costs apply [EXC: an Upper-Cliff cave may be thusly exited only by Climbing]. Exiting directly to above-ground from a cave IN a Depression leaves the Infantry IN that same (i.e., IN that cave's Entrance) hex; the normal cost to enter INTO that above-ground Location is one MF (like exiting a pillbox). For exiting a cave into a Cave Complex see 11.73.

EX: See the 11.6 illustrations. Infantry in cave A must expend one MF to enter hex S4. Caves G and M may be exited directly to above-ground only via Climbing. Infantry in cave J, K, or L would exit to above-ground by expending one MF (unless using hidden movement; 11.751) to enter INTO H5—even if H5 were a gully-woods (or gully-brush) hex.

11.73 CAVE COMPLEX: A Cave Complex may be entered only from an Accessible (11.6) cave/Cave-Complex/tunnel-(11.933), but such entry costs no MF (11.751). Infantry may not rout from a Cave Complex, nor may they advance from one Complex to another.

11.74 RESTRICTIONS: The Inherent MF allotment of every Infantry unit (even if wounded/berserk/Conscript/SMC) is four MF, and no Double-Time/leader MF bonus can apply, during a MPh or APh in which it enters a cave or Cave Complex. However, regardless of phase, an Infantry unit may enter a cave or Cave Complex from an Accessible cave/Cave-Complex only if it has ≥ two MF available (considering its SMC PP bonus [A4.42] and possessed SW PP, if any), even if its move requires no MF expenditure (11.751); neither Minimum Move nor Advance into Difficult Terrain can be used for such entry. Infantry that enter a cave (even from above-ground) or Cave Complex cannot enter another cave, Cave Complex or tunnel during that same phase.

EX: A Japanese squad carrying six PP may neither move nor advance from a cave to an Accessible Cave Complex (or vice-versa), because it has only one MF to expend and cannot use Double Time. A leader stacked with it could not apply his MF bonus, but if he has ≥ two MF available he could add his IPC to the squad's (A4.42) to increase its available MF to two, thereby enabling them to enter (as a stack) an Accessible cave or Cave Complex. See also the 11.751 example.

11.75 HIDDEN MOVEMENT:  Currently hidden Infantry  (and their SW/Gun), even if not originally set up using HIP, that enter a cave from an Accessible cave/Cave-Complex or that enter a pillbox from a Cave Complex (through a connecting tunnel; 11.932-.933) may remain hidden if no Good Order enemy ground unit within 16 hexes has a LOS to their new Location when they enter it. If such a LOS does exist, they are placed onboard concealed and thereafter are subject to normal "?"-loss rules [EXC: if in Open Ground IN a Depression as they exit one cave to enter another thereIN, they are completely revealed if such a LOS exists], A hidden unit/stack that exits a cave to above-ground is immediately placed onboard concealed but its "?" can be lost (even instantly) as per normal "?"-loss rules (A12.32) [EXC: it may remain hidden if exiting one cave to enter another IN the same hex, provided no Good Order enemy ground unit within 16 hexes currently has a LOS INTO that hex]. Infantry that enter/exit a hidden cave to/from above-ground need not reveal the hexside (if any) they have just "crossed".

When non-hidden Infantry (even if not in Good Order) enter a cave that no Good Order enemy ground unit within 16 hexes currently has a LOS to, they (and their SW/Gun/prisoner[s]) may immediately become hidden; i.e., they may be removed from the board (instead of being moved into that cave/Cave-Complex) and placed in the appropriate Cloaking Box. Infantry in a cave cannot become hidden at the end of their CCPh.

All Infantry, even if not originally set up using HIP and even if not in Good Order, automatically become/remain hidden as they enter a Cave Complex.

11.751 MF COST: Infantry that enter a non-hidden cave expend no MF to do so if they remain hidden (11.75) when they enter it. Infantry that enter a hidden cave expend no MF to do so (A12.33). Entry of a Cave Complex costs no MF.

EX: See the 11.321 illustrations. Hidden Japanese Infantry in cave A may enter Cave Complex AA without losing their hidden status, and this is accomplished simply by moving them from Cloaking Box A directly to Cloaking Box AA. If the Infantry in cave A are not hidden, they become hidden as they enter Complex AA; i.e., they are removed from the board and placed in Cloaking Box AA. In neither case do they expend any MF to move thusly (although they still need to have ≥ two MF available in order to make that move at all; 11.74).

Unbroken Infantry in Complex AA may directly enter Complex GG only during their MPh (11.73), but will remain hidden (i.e., will be moved from Cloaking Box AA directly to Cloaking Box GG). If they wish to continue on into cave G they must await their APh (11.74), at which time, if no Good Order enemy ground unit within 16 hexes of W9 currently has a LOS to that hex across hexside W9-W10, they may advance into that cave (by being placed in Cloaking Box G) and remain hidden. However, if such a LOS to W9 does exist, when they advance into the cave they will be placed onboard, concealed, beneath the Cave G counter (and will have expended two MF to enter the cave).

Hidden Infantry in cave B (or D) that enter hex W5 during their MPh or APh are placed onboard concealed, unless a Good Order enemy ground unit within 16 hexes of W5 has a LOS to that hex when they enter it, in which case normal "?"-loss rules apply.

If no Good Order enemy ground unit within 16 hexes of AA8 has a LOS to cave F, Infantry (even if broken) entering that cave from Z7 are immediately placed in Cloaking Box F.

EX: See the 11.6 illustrations. Hidden Infantry in cave G with ≥ two MF available may move or advance into cave A (or cave M) without losing their hidden status if no Good Order enemy ground unit within 16 hexes of S5 currently has a LOS to the cave they are entering. Hidden Infantry in cave J, K or L moving or advancing into one of the other caves IN H5 may remain hidden if no Good Order enemy ground unit within 16 hexes of H5 currently has a LOS INTO that hex.

11.76 MANHANDLING: A Gun [EXC: one with a Large Target Size; C2.271] may be Pushed during the MPh by a MMC (or its SMC equivalent) from a cave to an Accessible Cave Complex (or vice-versa) as per 11.75-.751. No Manhandling DR is needed. Manhandling into/out-of a cave/Cave-Complex/tunnel is otherwise NA.

EX: See the 11.321 illustrations. A 47L AT in cave A, B, C or D cannot be Pushed to above-ground, but can be Pushed into Cave Complex AA. However, from that Complex it can be Pushed only back into one of those same four caves. It cannot be Pushed from cave B directly to cave C or vice-versa.

11.77 ROUTING: A broken Japanese unit need not rout to the nearest woods/building if it can rout to a cave that is at least as close (in MF). A broken unit in a cave or Cave Complex is not required to rout to the nearest woods/building. A broken but non-DM unit in a cave is made DM by the presence of an ADJACENT (11.6) enemy unit in the normal (A10.61) manner. A broken unit in a Cave Complex cannot voluntarily remain DM, nor can it rout out of that Complex (11.73).

11.8 TEM & ATTACK EFFECTS: A cave has a +4 TEM [EXC: its TEM is +6 vs OBA/Area-Target-Type attacks]. This is indicated on the counter by " +4+6" in the Strength Factor. Cave TEM is not cumulative with any other +/-TEM, but is cumulative with SMOKE DRM. A cave is considered an Interior Building Location for all weather- and environment-related effects (only); i.e., no wind, rain, snow, dust, fog, mud, etc. can ever exist in a cave. Any unit/weapon that fires out of an Overstacked cave is subject to Area Fire (as well as normal Overstacking) penalties. A unit in a cave cannot claim Wall Advantage. Non-hidden, non-prisoner Infantry in caves are eligible sniper targets. No type of attack can affect a Cave Complex or its contents in any way [EXC: see 11.88].

11.81 (NON-)HIDDEN CAVES: Each attack [EXC: Area Target Type; OBA; Aerial bombs; Residual FP; Bombardment] vs a hex that contains ≥ one Known (to the firer) cave must predesignate one such cave in that hex as its target if it wishes to possibly affect that cave/its-contents; once one cave is predesignated, no other Location in that hex can be "hit" by that attack [EXC: Spraying Fire (11.811); FT (11.834); canister (11.836)]. Neither a hidden cave nor its contents may be predesignated as a target, included as part of any Random Selection DR, or hit/affected by any attack other than Bombardment (11.841). [EXC: a FT can also attack the occupants of all Accessible caves (11.834); WP can reveal all Accessible caves (11.851).]

EX: See the 11.321 illustrations. If a squad in hex X5 fires into W4 without predesignating cave B or cave C as its target, it cannot affect the occupant(s) of either cave (i.e., it is assumed to be attacking only the Level 2 Location in W4). If the squad specifies that it is firing at cave B, that attack can affect neither Cave C nor W4's Level 2 Location (unless it is using Spraying Fire; 11.811). If cave G is hidden and an Allied unit in/IN W10 fires into W9, its attack could not affect cave G's occupant(s) and thus could not reveal the cave.

11.811 SPRAYING FIRE: Provided they are predesignated targets (11.81), Spraying Fire can affect two (only) cave Locations that are within one level of each other and share a common CA Hexside vertex. However, a Spraying Fire attack cannot include > one cave Location if it includes a non-cave Location, nor can one that includes two non-cave Locations include any cave Location.

EX: See the 11.321 illustrations. A squad in X5 and able to use Spraying Fire could use it vs cave(s) B/C/D only in the following ways: vs cave B and W4's Level 2 Location; vs cave C and W4's Level 2 Location; vs cave B and cave C: vs cave B and W5's Level 1 Location; vs cave C and X4's Level 1 Location; vs cave B and cave D; vs cave D and W5's Level 1 Location; or vs cave D and V4's Level 2 Location.

EX: See the 11.6 illustrations. A Gun in U5 using IFE vs S5 could utilize Spraying Fire only in the following ways: vs cave G and cave M; vs cave G and any unit(s) Climbing in T4 at Level 0, 1 or 2; vs cave M and S5's Level 3 Location; vs cave M and any unit(s) Climbing in T5 at Level 1, 2 or 3; or vs cave G and T4 (and excluding all Climbers in T4). A unit/weapon in/IN H5 could not use Spraying Fire vs its own hex at all (A9.5).

11.812 CONCEALMENT: Hidden/concealed status in a cave neither halves the FP of, nor adds a TH DRM to, attacks vs its occupants.  However, all other HIP/"?" benefits apply unchanged (e.g., such status can negate the Sighting TC -2 DRM; E7.3).

11.82 RESIDUAL FP: Residual FP may be placed in a cave only if that cave was the attacker's predesignated target (11.81) [EXC: if an Aerial-bomb/Area-Target-Type attack leaves Residual FP in a cave's Entrance Hex, it also leaves Residual FP in that cave if it caused a PTC-or-better result therein]. Existing Residual FP in a cave in a non-Depression hex acts as a Snap Shot vs each unit crossing (in non-Bypass fashion) that cave's CA Hexside (or Climbing to that cave's level) but remaining above-ground; for a cave IN a Depression, it acts as a Snap Shot vs each above-ground unit crossing (in non-Bypass fashion), or moving to/from Crest status from/to IN that hex along, the hexside that Cave counter's arrow points directly away from. However, in no case would it attack a unit on a Crest/Climb counter at a different level than that of the cave. Like any other type of Snap Shot, such Residual FP is first halved as Area Fire.

EX: See the 11.321 illustrations. Four Residual FP in cave G would cause a two-FP Snap Shot vs a unit moving from above-ground in W9 to W10 or vice-versa. If W9 contained woods instead of brush, a unit Bypassing that woods to vertex W9-W10-V9 or W9-X9-W10 would not be subject to a Snap Shot from the Residual FP in cave G.

EX: See the 11.6 illustrations. Two Residual FP in cave G would cause a one-FP Snap Shot vs a unit that enters Level 1 by Climbing along hexside S5-T4. Six Residual FP in cave K would act as a two-FP Snap Shot vs a unit moving from IN H5 to G5 (or vice-versa), or from IN H5 to Crest level (or vice-versa) along hexside H5-G5—but could not attack a unit in G5 Bypassing to vertex G5-H5-G6 or G5-H4-G5.

11.821 FIRE LANE: A Fire Lane can originate in a cave but cannot enter one.

11.83 SW/GUNS: Neither mortar nor AA fire (E7.5) is allowed from a cave [EXC: a Japanese light mortar24 may be fired from a cave (but may not use Spotted Fire; C9.3) [errata included] unless its Entrance Hex is a dense-jungle/bamboo hex whose total obstacle height exceeds that cave's level]. Each Gun in a cave is considered to have a normal (i.e., neither Small nor Large; C2.271) Target Size for TH purposes. Infantry in a cave may Spot for mortars in the normal manner (C9.3).

11.831 AREA TARGET TYPE: A non-hidden cave and its contents are immune to Area Target Type attacks whose LOS/LOF enters its hex outside of its CA Hexside. For bomb attacks vs caves see also 11.86.

11.832 ACQUISITION: When using the Infantry Target Type, Target Acquisition may be gained/retained vs a Known (to the firer) cave even if that cave contains no Known enemy unit (/even if firing SMOKE as per 11.85).

11.833 DC: G11.833 Thrown-DC dr A DC may be Placed into a cave only by an unpinned, Good Order, non-Climbing Infantry unit that expends two MF (cave entry cost), plus any required SMOKE MF cost, to Place it while ADJACENT (11.6) to the cave—or as per 11.8331. A DC may be Thrown into a cave only by an adjacent, unpinned, Good Order, non-Climbing Thrower who is not more than one level lower than, and who has a LOS to, that cave—and only if the Thrower's owner makes a subsequent Final dr (∆) of ≤ 3 using the following drm (as applicable): +1 if the cave's level is > that of the Thrower; +1 if the Thrower is in a Non-Stopped{J10}/Motion vehicle; -1 if the Thrower is ADJACENT (11.6) to the cave; and -1 if the Thrower is Heroic/Fanatic.

When detonated, a DC operably-Placed/successfully-Thrown into a cave attacks only that cave and its contents, and receives no DRM of any kind [EXC: a Placed DC receives a -4 DRM if no unconcealed Good Order Japanese MMC was in the cave when it was Placed]. If a Thrown-DC dr is unsuccessful, that DC falls unpossessed to the Base Level of that cave's Entrance Hex and (unless it malfunctions) will attack that cave, its contents and its Entrance Hex (and the Thrower's Location, if not in that Entrance Hex), with all DRM (including the cave's +4 TEM) applying in the normal manner [EXC: it does not attack the cave (and its contents) if it and the cave are now at different levels; it does not attack any other cave or cave contents in that Entrance Hex].



Final dr



≤ 3

Successfully Throwna

+1 cave's level is > that of Thrower

≥ 4


+1 Thrower is in Non-Stopped{J10}/Motion vehicle

-1 Thrower is in ADJACENT (11.6) to cave

-1 Thrower is Heroic/Fanatic

a: DC attacks cave and its contents, with no DRM of any kind.

b; DC falls unpossessed to Base Level of Entrance Hex and (if no malfunction) attacks that cave, its contents and Entrance Hex (and Thrower's Location, if not in that Entrance Hex), with all DRM (including cave's +4 TEM) applying in normal manner [EXC: attack vs cave (and its contents) NA if DC and cave now at different levels; attack vs other cave/cave-contents in Entrance Hex NA].

EX: See the 11.321 illustrations. A DC may be Placed or Thrown into cave A only from hex Y5, and into cave E only from IN (or from Crest status on cave E's side of) Z5 [EXC to both: see 11.8331].

EX: See the 11.6 illustrations. A DC may be Placed or Thrown into cave A only from Level 0 in hex S4 (or Placed by a Climbing unit at Level 1 in S4; 11.8331). A DC may be Placed into cave G only by a Climbing unit at Level 2 in T4 (11.8331), or may be Thrown into cave G from Level 0 in T4; if the Thrown-DC dr is unsuccessful, the DC will attack T4 (with a + 3/ +4 DRM; A23.6) but not cave G. A DC may be Placed into cave M only by a Climbing unit at Level 3 in T5 (11.8331), but cannot be Thrown into cave M. A DC may be Placed or Thrown into cave J, K or L from IN H5—or into cave J from in/IN H4, into cave K from in/IN 16, or into cave L from in/IN G6.

A Thrown-DC dr made vs cave K by a non-Fanatic Infantry squad IN H5 will receive a -1 drm for being ADJACENT as per 11.6. If the DC is successfully Thrown, it will attack cave K and its contents with 30 FP and a 0 DRM but will not attack the Thrower's Location. However, if the Throwing attempt fails (and the DC does not malfunction), its attack vs cave K and its contents will receive a +6 DRM (+4 [cave TEM] + 2 [Thrown-DC target's DRM; A23.6] = +6) and its attack vs the Throwing squad's Location will receive a +3 DRM (A23.6). If the squad is instead in/IN I6 when it Throws the DC at cave K, its ThrownDC dr will receive no drm; and if the Throwing attempt fails, I6 too will be attacked by the DC, with a +4 DRM (+ 1 [woods TEM] +3 [Thrown-DC Thrower's DRM; A23.6] = +4).

11.8331 CLIMBING: An unpinned, Good Order Infantry unit at a higher elevation than a cave but not in its CA may attempt to Place a DC into it by declaring such and moving onto a Climb counter whose arrow touches a vertex of that cave's CA Hexside (or, for a cave IN a Depression, touches a vertex of the hexside the Cave counter's arrow points directly away from). This type of Climbing is allowed even along a non-cliff hexside—in which case the Climb counter is placed in the cave's hex;25 such a Climbing unit is considered to be in the hex containing its Climb counter and in the Location specified by the level of that counter. All Climbing rules apply except as stated otherwise (e.g., no Falling DR is made unless the unit is actually Climbing a cliff hexside and must change level). The Climbing unit may attempt to Place its DC only when it is one level above the cave. The attempt is allowed despite the fact that no LOS exists between the unit and the cave. No extra MF expenditure is required for Placement. When the Placement attempt is made, the ATTACKER must make a subsequent dr as per 11.833 (i.e., as if he were Throwing the DC); if the dr is unsuccessful, the DC is eliminated without detonating.

EX: See the 11.321 illustrations. An Allied squad carrying a DC at Level 2 in hex V4 may attempt to Place it in cave D by declaring its attempt at the start of its MPh (since Climbing uses its entire MF allotment; B11.43) and being placed on a Level 2 Climb counter in V4 with its arrow pointing to either vertex (Placing unit's choice) of hexside V4-W5 (cave D's CA Hexside). Its owner then announces that the DC is being Placed, and makes the 11.833 subsequent dr. Defensive First Fire then follows, using the Placing unit's vertex aiming point. If the Placing unit survives until the APh it may advance off the Climb counter to Level 2 in V4.

EX: See the 11.6 illustrations. An Allied squad at Level 3 in S5 that wishes to Place a DC in cave M will follow the same procedure as given in the preceding example, except that a Level 3 Climb counter will be placed in hex T5 since the unit is Climbing a real cliff (however, no Falling DR will be required because the squad will not have to ascend/descend to make the Placement attempt). A DC Placement attempt made vs cave L by Infantry in 15 would not require the Infantry to first attain Crest status along hexside H5-I5; at the start of its MPh it would simply declare the attempt and be placed on a Level -1 Climb counter in H5, with the arrow pointing to vertex H5-H4-I5 or H5-I5-I6. If hexside H5-I5 were a Depression cliff (B11.1), or if the Infantry unit began its MPh in Crest status along hexside H5-I5, the procedure would be exactly the same [EXC: in the latter case the Climb counter would be placed on the Crest counter (but the unit would still be treated as Climbing)].

11.8332 SET DC: A DC may be Set in a cave by an Allied unit even though that unit cannot enter the cave. Normal Set DC rules apply except as stated otherwise. The unit must spend its entire MPh to Set the DC while ADJACENT (11.6) to the cave. If the cave's CA Hexside is also a hill/cliff Crest Line hexside, the Setting unit must also be declared to be occupying a specified vertex of the cave's CA Hexside at the same level as the cave. This may require the Setting unit to be on a Crest/Climb counter in certain situations; however, a unit Setting a DC while on a Crest counter cannot claim its entrenchment TEM. A unit on a Climb counter may Set a DC only vs a cave/its-contents. When Set, the DC is put in the cave Location. If no unconcealed Good Order Japanese MMC is in the cave when the Set DC dr is made, that DC receives an extra -4 DRM for IFT (not malfunction) purposes.

EX: See the 11.321 illustrations. An Infantry unit may attempt to Set a DC in cave G only if it starts its MPh in hex W10 on a Crest counter centered on hexside W9-W10, and only if it declares at that time that it is at the W9-X9-W10 or W9-W10-V9 vertex to Set a DC. For Defensive First Fire purposes it is still considered to be in W10 (though at that vertex aiming point), in the Open Ground (unless negated by Hindrances, or by SMOKE in W10) occupied by that vertex, and using Hazardous Movement. If the DC is Set while no Known Good Order Japanese MMC is in the cave, it will receive a total IFT DRM of -7 (assuming it does not malfunction).

EX: See the 11.6 illustrations. An Infantry unit attempting to Set a DC in cave G must first spend one MPh in T4 Climbing to Level 1. Only at the start of its next MPh may it attempt to Set the DC (using the vertex to which the arrow on its Climb counter points as its declared vertex position for Setting the DC).

11.834 FT: A FT attack vs a cave can affect only the occupant(s) of that cave Location [EXC: if the cave is in a non-Depression hex, the FT also attacks the occupants of all (even hidden) caves Accessible (11.6) to that cave, using the same FP quartered and the same Original IFT DR].

11.835 SCW & HEAT: A SCW [EXC: PIAT] fired from a cave causes a Desperation penalty (C13.81) unless it is using Opportunity Fire or the Case C3 TH DRM [EXC: firing a SCW other than a PIAT from an Upper-Cliff cave always causes a Desperation penalty]. HEAT may be fired at Infantry/a-Gun in a cave.

11.836 CANISTER: Canister FP is halved vs a cave (prior to all other modifications). However, canister can affect the occupants of all in-LOS caves that its firer has predesignated, as well as each above-ground Location that is within one level of (and in the same hex with) a cave being attacked by that canister.

11.837 RADIO/FIELD-PHONE: A radio may be used in a cave only if it has remained therein since the scenario's initial setup. A field phone may be used in a cave; moreover, its Security Area (C1.23) may partially comprise a line of contiguous, Accessible cave/CaveComplex Locations even if their hexes do not have the same coordinate letter or number. The subterranean portions of a Security Area are immune to DR results that would cause the field phone line to be cut [EXC: any HE FFE Original KIA DR vs, or the elimination of, a cave Location that is part of the Security Area].

11.84 OBA: A non-hidden cave and its contents are immune to OBA unless the attack vs its hex crosses that cave's CA hexside. For this purpose, OBA is considered traced from the center of the road exiting the firer's Friendly Board Edge at hexrow Q, or at hex A5/6 or GG5/6, its Ocean Hex (14.62) or the center of the  firer's Friendly Board Edge (FBE) {J10} as applicable [EXC: a non-Aerial Offboard Observer's hex always serves as that hex for its battery].


11.841 BOMBARDMENT: A cave has a Morale Level of 11 vs Bombardment. Every cave in a Bombarded hex must take a NMC. If it passes it is unaffected, its contents take no Bombardment MC, and all HIP therein is retained. If the cave fails its NMC, it and all of its contents are eliminated; if they are hidden, this is done without telling the opponent where the elimination(s) occurred or what was eliminated (except for VP/ELR purposes as per 11.88).

11.85 SMOKE:  SMOKE may be placed in/IN a Cave counter's hex in the normal manner, in which case the SMOKE counter is placed (and considered to be) above all Cave counters in that hex. Each SMOKE-grenade/Direct-Fire-ordnance attempt to place SMOKE into a cave itself must predesignate that cave as its target; such attempts may be made even during a Heavy Wind. Indirect Fire cannot place Smoke in a cave, but can place WP in a cave if it achieves a WP CH vs that non-hidden cave Location. WP successfully placed (by any means) in a cave is automatically a CH therein, and uses the reversed TEM applicable to that type of attack. Smoke dispensers (D13.) cannot place smoke in a cave.

An attempt to place SMOKE grenades in a cave may be made if the placing unit is either in, or is in a position where a DC could be Thrown into (11.833), that cave. Such an attempt made from above-ground succeeds only upon making a Final Thrown-DC dr of ≤ 3 as per 11.833 (i.e., as if the unit were Throwing a DC). Each ½" SMOKE counter placed in a cave remains onboard (beneath that Cave counter) and in effect until the end of the Player Turn in which it was placed.

A Direct-Fire ordnance attempt to place SMOKE in a cave requires the firer to have a LOS to the target cave and to use the Infantry Target Type or a SW's own TH Table {J10}. The +2 Basic TH# modification for firing SMOKE at ≤ 12 hexes (C4.4) is NA, but the cave's +4 TEM (TH Case Q) applies. If the Final TH DR yields a hit (and the Original TH DR is ≤ the SMOKE Depletion number), the appropriate SMOKE is placed beneath the Cave counter. Acquisition may be gained (11.832), and retaining Multiple ROF is possible.

A predesignated attempt to place SMOKE in a cave which fails only due to too high a subsequent-dr/TH-DR causes the SMOKE (if created) to be placed at the Base Level of that cave's Entrance Hex, but no WP NMC ensues from that attempt.

SMOKE in a cave is not considered to exist in the rest of that hex, nor does SMOKE above all Cave counters in a hex exist in those caves. Contrary to A24.8, the "outgoing LOS" DRM of SMOKE in a cave equals twice that SMOKE's current maximum applicable DRM (instead of an additional + 1).

EX: See the 11.321 illustrations. SMOKE placed in hex W4 but outside of caves B and C is considered to rise from Level 2 and does not affect LOS to/from those caves.

A non-moving, BU Sherman tank in Z8 (but not in Bypass) attempting to fire SMOKE into non-hidden cave B or C would have to predesignate one of them as its target (11.81); and using the Infantry Target Type would place a SMOKE counter beneath its targeted Cave counter on an Original TH DR of 2 or 3 (the Basic (and Modified) TH# is 8, and the total TH DRM equal + 5 (+4 [TEMJ and +1 [BU])]. If its Original TH DR is ≥ 4 but ≤ the SMOKE Depletion number, the SMOKE would instead be placed in W5 (if cave B were the target) or X4 (if cave C were the target).

The LOS of Infantry in a cave is blocked (B.10) if that cave contains SMOKE with an applicable DRM of +3. since their "outgoing" SMOKE DRM is +6.


11.851 SMOKE never drifts into/out-of a cave. However, when a ⅝" WP counter in a cave is flipped to its Dispersed side, and when any (i.e., ½" or ⅝") WP counter in a cave is removed from play (even via elimination of that Cave counter), all other hidden caves Accessible to that cave, plus all other hidden caves set up within the boundaries of the same Cave Complex (if any) which that cave is set up within, plus the above-ground entrances/exits of all tunnels that connect to that Complex, are immediately revealed (regardless of LOS), provided they are also at a higher level than that cave. No SMOKE can ever exist in a Cave Complex. A hidden pillbox is not revealed just because a tunnel entrance/exit in it is; the tunnel's owner states merely that a tunnel opening exists in that hex.26

EX: See the 11.321 illustrations. Full-strength ⅝" WP placed in cave C would, when it becomes Dispersed, reveal only the tunnel-opening in the X6 pillbox (since all other caves/tunnel-openings connected to Complex AA are at ≤ the level of cave C; see 11.933 for tunnel levels). However, if that WP had been placed in cave A, all other caves within that Complex and both of the above-ground tunnel openings (in T6 and X6) would be revealed.

EX: See the 11.6 illustrations. A ½" WP counter in cave A would be removed after placing "?" at the end of the Player Turn, at which time Cave counters G and M would be placed onboard if previously hidden. WP placed in cave G would be treated the same but would reveal only cave M. WP placed in cave M, J, K or L would reveal no other cave in/IN its hex. SMOKE placed IN H5 would affect all LOS to/from caves J-L, but would not reveal any of those caves.

11.86 AERIAL: A non-hidden cave is considered a building for Sighting TC (E7.3) purposes. If a FB/DB passes a Sighting TC vs a cave and declares that cave a designated target, all (including friendly) occupants of that cave's Entrance Hex which are in the plane's LOS are assumed to have been Sighted as well. Each Aerial attack vs an Upper-Cliff-cave/its-contents receives an extra TH (for bombs) or IFT (for MG) DRM equal to the difference in levels between it and the Base Level (or Crest level—whichever is higher) of its Entrance Hex. Each Aerial attack vs a cave/its-contents is also resolved simultaneously vs all Sighted units/targets in its Entrance Hex just as if the plane were attacking that Entrance Hex, using the same Original TH/IFT DR used vs the cave but modified individually for each target. If Napalm (17.4) is used for a bomb attack, the resulting Blaze and Smoke counters (17.41) are placed in the Entrance Hex unless otherwise prohibited.

11.87 CC: No type of CC attack is allowed between a unit in a cave and one outside of it.

11.88 ELIMINATION: A cave can be eliminated only by a DC attack, or by a HE [EXC: HE Equivalency] attack of ≥ 100mm, that is resolved in that cave [EXC: Bombardment (11.841); dozer (15.22)]. If the Original (Final, for a Set DC or for one Placed while no unconcealed Good Order Japanese MMC occupies the cave; 11.833) IFT DR of the DC attack is a KIA, or if the HE attack is a CH, that Cave counter and all of its contents are eliminated.

A unit/SW/Gun in a Cave Complex is immediately eliminated when it lacks a legally traversable route (regardless of length) into-a-cave/to-above-ground. When this occurs, the opponent is not told exactly what was eliminated. He is informed of the Casualty VP he has thereby amassed, if scenario Victory Conditions require him to amass Casualty VP; and he is informed of any change in the Japanese ELR due to resulting Battlefield Integrity effects.

EX: See the 11.321 illustrations, and assume that Infantry and a Gun occupy Cave Complex AA. The Infantry in that Complex will be eliminated only if caves A-D, G and H, as well as both above-ground tunnel openings, are destroyed. The Gun would be eliminated upon the destruction of caves A-D. since it could be Pushed into neither Cave Complex GG nor a tunnel and thus would lack a route into a cave. Note that mere Allied Control of those tunnel-opening and cave Locations would not suffice to eliminate the Infantry/Gun.

11.9 MISCELLANEOUS: No cave or Cave Complex may be created/moved during play.

11.91 OB: The number of caves available to the Japanese is listed in their OB. However, each cave set up as an Upper-Cliff cave (11.113) subtracts three from the number of caves available for setup. Cave Complexes (11.2) are not listed in the Japanese OB. The number of Cave Complexes available to the Japanese side is not reduced by the setup of any Upper-Cliff cave(s).

EX: If the Japanese OB contains four Cave counters, they may be set up as four caves that do not require Climbing to enter from above-ground, or as one such cave plus one Upper-Cliff cave. In both cases, one of those caves (owner's option) will also be the Primary cave of a Cave Complex. If the Japanese OB contains only one, two or three caves, one Upper-Cliff cave may be set up but the remaining caves (if any) are forfeited; and, regardless of whether one, two or three caves are set up, they do not grant the Japanese side a Cave Complex (since 25% [FRD] of one, two or three is zero).

11.92 GUNS: One non-vehicular Gun of any type and Caliber/Target Size may be set up in each cave [EXC: NA if it is being Animal-Packed], While one Gun occupies a cave, no other Gun may be set up in or enter (or be re-assembled from a dm SW in) that Location. The CA of a Gun in a cave always coincides with that Cave counter's CA at all times— but this itself does not prevent it from being Pushed from that cave into an Accessible Cave Complex or vice-versa.

11.93 FORTIFICATIONS: No Fortification may exist in a cave/Cave-Complex; however, a tunnel may connect to a Cave Complex as per 11.933. All Fortifications in a Cave counter's hex retain their normal capabilities and effects, but only outside that cave and at their normal setup level.

11.931 WIRE: Infantry exiting a cave directly into/INTO a wire Location are placed above that Wire counter.

11.932 PILLBOX: Infantry in a pillbox cannot enter a cave/Cave-Complex without first entering the above-ground Location in their hex [EXC: they may enter a Cave Complex (and Infantry may enter a pillbox from a Cave Complex) via a connecting tunnel; 11.933]. See also 11.75.

11.933 TUNNELS: Standard tunnel rules apply to tunnels connected to Cave Complexes except as stated otherwise. For the purposes of Rules Section G11, a tunnel is considered one subterranean Location Accessible to the two Locations it connects, and the two Locations it connects are considered Accessible to each other [EXC to both: a tunnel may be entered only during the MPh/RtPh]. A tunnel may connect an above-ground Location to a Cave Complex or connect two different Cave Complexes—but may never enter/exit a hex that contains any Irrigated-paddy/sand/marsh/ swamp/Water-Obstacle-(including hexside-pond)/non-dry-stream. Otherwise, within its three-hex length limit, a tunnel may have a subterranean entrance/exit in any hex of a Cave Complex. A tunnel connected to a Cave Complex may change elevations, but not more than one level per hex, and must always lie one level lower than the Base Level (or, for an Interior Building Hex, than the ground level) of its hex [EXC: any tunnel entrance or exit not in a Cave Complex is assumed to lie at the Base Level (or, for an Interior Building Hex, at the ground level) of its hex]. A tunnel entrance/exit revealed by WP (11.851) may be Recovered and subsequently destroyed (B8.61) even if no Japanese unit has used it in Allied LOS.

EX: See the 11.321 illustrations. The pillbox's tunnel could not be set up directly to/through hex X5 or Y6 because it would have to be at Level 2 in X6 and at Level 0 in X5/Y6. Japanese Infantry in T6 that wish to enter Cave Complex AA during the MPh would be removed from the board at the start of their MPh and placed in Cloaking Box AA beneath a Sewer counter. Their APh would consist of the Sewer counter being removed from them. During their next MPh they could enter the tunnel leading to the pillbox by being placed beneath a Sewer counter again and moved to Cloaking Box I; then in their APh they would either appear onboard or, if they can enter the pillbox while remaining hidden (11.75), would remain in Box I but have their Sewer counter removed. Infantry that exit Complex AA via the V5-T6 tunnel are placed onboard beneath a Sewer counter during their MPh but are still considered to be subterranean and out of all enemy LOS; their APh consists of exchanging the Sewer counter for a "?".

11.934 SEWERS: Sewers cannot connect to any other type of subterranean Location.

11.94 CONTROL: An unhidden cave not occupied by a Good Order Japanese MMC is considered Controlled by any Good Order Allied Infantry MMC ADJACENT (11.6) to it. Such Control remains in effect-regardless of that Allied unit's subsequent status/presence—until the cave is occupied by a Good Order Japanese MMC (even if hidden). A subterranean unit can Control only the Location it presently occupies.

11.95 FIRE: A Blaze in a cave/Cave-Complex hex but outside that subterranean Location does not force that cave's/Cave-Complex's occupants to leave the hex (nor would SMOKE rising from higher than their level affect them). Caves and Cave Complexes are not Burnable Terrain.

11.96 NIGHT: A cave is Illuminated only if its hex and its Entrance Hex are Illuminated. No Cave Complex can ever be Illuminated. A unit moving in a cave or Cave Complex is not subject to Straying until it moves above-ground. Despite being Concealment Terrain, the MF entry cost of caves/Cave-Complexes is not increased (as per E1.3) at night.

11.97 BERSERK: Infantry in a cave become Battle Hardened on a Final Heat of Battle DR of ≥ 9. No cave occupant is considered a Known enemy unit for berserk-unit creation/charge purposes.

11.98 PRISONERS: An Allied prisoner in a Cave Complex must have a Guard at all times, and cannot attack its Guard in CC. Should that Guard be eliminated anyway (e.g., by Fate) while no other unit is present/able to become the new Guard, the prisoner may attempt no action whatsoever. Any Allied unit that becomes rearmed/an-escaped-prisoner while in a cave is instantly moved to that cave's Entrance Hex, regardless of Overstacking/enemy-units in that Location and even if the Allied unit must undergo a mine attack (or be put on a Climb counter) to enter it.

11.981 INTERROGATION: If a unit in a cave is revealed by Interrogation (E2.), that cave is revealed as well. If a hidden Primary cave is revealed by Interrogation, the prisoner player must announce that it is in fact a Primary cave. Interrogation cannot reveal any Cave Complex contents.

11.99 DYO: Only the Japanese side may purchase caves. Each Cave counter has a BPV of 20 prior to 1944, and of 10 in 1944-45.