7.1 CHINESE PEOPLES VOLUNTEER ARMY (CPVA): 31 The People's Republic of China armed forces employed in the Korean War were referred to as the Chinese People's Volunteer Army (CPVA). CPVA counters have a unique two-tone color. CPVA MMC types are listed on the KW National Capabilities Chart, and squads/HS are grouped into two categories: Initial Intervention (7.12) and Soviet-Armed (7.13). A CPVA 1st Line MMC that Battle Hardens becomes Fanatic (A10.8). There are no Conscript/Green MMC, but 2nd Line squads that suffer ELR Replacement are not Disrupted.
• Ammunition Shortage (A19.131) is in effect;
• SW have a Repair Number of "1" regardless of what is printed on the counter.
7.121 GRENADIERS:32 Grenadiers are MMC differentiated by having a Range factor (A1.22) of "1"". They may not use their inherent FP as Long Range Fire (A7.22), their inherent Fp is not doubled when making PBF (A7.21) attacks, and their inherent FP is doubled (not tripled) when making TPBF (A7.21-.212) attacks (A7.212 still applies normally). Grenaldiers may not use/repair any SW/Gun [EXC: SW Self-Destruction (A9.73), MOL (A22.6), DC (A23.), Dairy Chain (B28.531)]. A Grenadier MMC may not Interdict (A10.53).
7.2 MMC: A CPVA squad has no Broken side. Instead it has a Full-Strength side and a Reduced-Strength side, both of which are normally in Good Order. The Reduced-Strength side is distinguished by a horizontal red stripe.
7.21 STEP REDUCTION:33 Whenever an armed, non-berserk CPVA squad fails an IFT/Collateral-Attack/Bombardment/FPF MC or suffers a dr "1" sniper attack, it undergoes Step Reduction (7.221-.222) [EXC: if 2nd Line and it exceeds its ELR (7.225); if it suffers Casually Reduction (7.24)]. Unless it becomes broken, a unit that undergoes Step Reduction retains any pinned/TI/CX status it has, and also maintains any Fire-Lane/Target-Acquisition it can currently claim. Only CPVA squads (and infantry-crews; 7.28) can suffer Step Reduction.
7.22 ATTACK BREAK: An armed, non-berserk CPVA squad that fails an IFT/Collateral-Attack/Bombardment/FPF MC (but does not suffer Casualty Reduction), or "breaks" due to a KIA result (A7.301), or suffers a dr "1" sniper attack is always affected in one of the following ways (7.221-.225):
7.223 If 1st Line and Full-Strength, and it exceeds its ELR, it is Replaced (due to ELR failure) by a Full-Strength 2nd Line squad which is then Step-Reduced (due to MC failure) as per 7.221.
7.224 If 1st Line and Reduced-Strength, and it exceeds its ELR, it is Replaced (due to ELR failure) by a Reduced-Strength 2nd Line squad which is then Step-Reduced (due to MC failure) as per 7.222.
7.23 OTHER BREAK: An armed, non-berserk CPVA squad that suffers a break result directly due to a cause other than those listed in 7.22 (e.g., due to its Bailing Out, Voluntarily Breaking, Wreck Check, Para Landing, WP MC, OVR Prevention MC, or Panji MC) is always affected in ≥ one of the following ways (unless it suffers Casualty Reduction; 7.24):
7.233 In addition, if it breaks by an amount > its ELR (but does not roll an Original 12), the one or two broken HS for which it is exchanged will be 2nd Line (if the squad was 1st Line) or Disrupted (if the squad was 2nd Line).
7.24 CASUALTY REDUCTION: All Casualty Reduction results, regardless of how they were caused, apply in the normal manner (i.e., as per A7.302) to all types of CPVA Personnel. A berserk or Unarmed CPVA squad that suffers any type of break result suffers Casualty Reduction instead of Step Reduction.
7.25 UNARMED: A Full- or Reduced-Strength CPVA squad that becomes Unarmed is exchanged for a normal Unarmed squad. Any Unarmed CPVA squad/HS that becomes re-armed (A20.551-.552) is exchanged for a Full-Strength 2nd Line 3-3-7 squad or 1-2-7 HS respectively.
7.26 DEPLOYING: A CPVA squad Deploys in the normal manner [EXC: if Reduced-Strength, it is exchanged for just one of its HS]. See also 7.5.
7.27 HS: All armed CPVA HS break (and if 2nd Line it becomes Disrupted when suffering ELR Replacement) and rally in the normal manner (A8.31, A10.3, A10.4, A10.6, etc.; see also 7.24). Two Good-Order, same-Class CPVA HS Recombine (A1.32) into a Full-Strength squad of that Class.
7.28 CREWS: CPVA infantry-crew counters have Full- and Reduced- Strength sides like CPVA squad counters (7.2). A Full-Strength CPVA infantry-crew that fails an IFT/Collateral-Attack/Bombardment/FPF MC, or "breaks" due to a KIA result (A7.301), or suffers a dr "1" sniper attack is Step-Reduced in the same manner as a Full-Strength CPVA squad (7.21-.221). A Reduced-Strength infantry-crew that suffers such a result is likewise Step-Reduced - but to a broken vehicle-crew. A Full- or Reduced- Strength infantry-crew that suffers a break result as per 7.23 (including breaking voluntarily) is exchanged for a broken vehicle-crew. [EXC to all: if it suffers Casualty Reduction; see 7.24.] No infantry-crew may Deploy, nor may vehicle crews Recombine.
A CPVA vehicle-crew breaks and rallies in the normal manner (A8.31, A10.3, A10.4, A10.6, etc.; see also 7.24). A CPVA vehicle-crew counter that did not set-up/enter as an Inherent crew is considered an infantry-crew for purposes of A21.22; therefore, an Inherent CPVA vehicle-crew that becomes an onboard Personnel unit should have its ID recorded on paper if A21.22 could come into effect during the scenario. CPVA Inherent crews function in the standard manner (D5., etc.).
7.3 LEADERS:34 The rank structure of CPVA leaders is as follows (in descending order): 10-1, 10-0, 9-1, 9-0, 8-1, 8-0, 7-0, 6+1. An unpinned, Good Order CPVA Infantry/Cavalry leader increases the Morale Level of all other non-berserk CPVA Infantry/Cavalry MMC in his Location [EXC: if an unpinned, unbroken Political Officer (7.31) is present] by one (A.18 applies).
7.31 POLITICAL OFFICERS (PO):35 CPVA treat Political Officers (PO) as Commissars just as if they were 10/42 Russians (A25.22-.223) unless specified otherwise. Political Officers have a red Strength Factor (A10.7). A unit is not immune to DM status while being rallied by a PO, but the DRM is +2 instead of the normal +4 (A10.62), and a unit which fails to rally under the direction of a PO is not Replaced/Casualty-Reduced/eliminated per A25.222. No leader may be exchanged for a PO, which must be specifically assigned in the OB.
7.41 RESTRICTED FIRE: Each attack conducted by a Good Order CPVA squad/HS vs a non-ADJACENT target during the PFPh or when using Opportunity Fire (A7.25) is treated as Area Fire (A7.23; C.4) [EXC: if a leader directs that attack; A7.53].
7.42 INFANTRY PLATOON MOVEMENT (IPM):36 During the MPh, a Good Order CPVA Infantry squad/HS may move only in an IPM Group (7.421) [EXC: Entry (7.4222); if using Non-IPM Movement; (7.423)]. Dummies and other Good Order CPVA infantry units not normally subject to IPM (e.g., crews, SMC, Recon Units [7.5]) may be declared as participating in an IPM Group.
7.421 IPM GROUP: A CPVA ATTACKER may declare an IPM Group during the MPh by selecting ≥ one participating MMC and ≥ one leader, all of which must be in a contiguous chain of ADJACENT Locations, in Good Order, free to move, and cannot have started their MPh yet. Leaders may either participate in an IPM Group or a single leader may initiate an IPM Group. A leader may only initiate or participate in one IPM Group per MPh. A participating leader provides the leader bonus (A4.12) to all units in the IPM Group, even if the leader ceases to be part of the IPM Group. Initiating an IPM Group is not a concealment loss action (A12.141) and does not in any way limit the leader's movement during the MPh. Once an IPM Group is formed, a participating unit can only cease being part of the IPM Group per 7.4221.
7.422 MECHANICS OF INFANTRY PLATOON MOVEMENT: An IPM Group uses Impulse Movement (D14.3). All rules for Impulse Movement apply unless specified otherwise. Each unit in an IPM Group must move so that (if possible) at the end of each Impulse (but not during the Impulse) the entire IPM Group consists of a single contiguous chain of adjacent hexes/Locations. Assault Movement (A4.61) and Double Time (A4.5) may be declared normally for an IPM Group, but only for the group as a whole and affects all units in that group. Units in an IPM Group attempting to move beneath Wire (B26.4) make individual Exit drs.
A unit in an IPM Group may not:
• Mount/load-onto any form of conveyance;
• Declare a Dash (A4.63);
• Search (A12.152);
• Set a DC (A23.7);
• Climb (B11.4);
• Attempt any type of Clearance (B24.7);
• Push a Gun (C10.3);
• Swim (E6.).
7.4221 GAPS: A unit in an IPM Group that is eliminated, breaks, or becomes pinned or Berserk is no longer considered part of the group at the end of the current Impulse. If the remaining units of the IPM Group do not fulfill the requirements of 7.422, they must move to do so at the end of the next Impulse (unless they end their MPh in their current hexes); should they fail to do so the group immediately ceases movement, and all participating units end their MPh in their current Location [EXC: Entry; 7.4222]. A SMC that becomes Wounded (A17.) While using IPM has the option to voluntarily cease being part of the IPM Group at the end of the current Impulse and end its MPh in its current Location.
7.4221 GAPS EX: During the first Impulse, all units in the IPM Group move one hex for a cost of 1 MF (as shown by the blue arrows). Defensive Fire pins the 7-0 leader in 44W5 and breaks the 2-2-7 HS in X4. The pinned leader and broken HS are no longer part of the group after the current Impulse (7.4221). In the next Impulse, the CPVA player must move the group’s remaining units so that they form a single contiguous chain of adjacent hexes, e.g., movement as shown by the red arrows.
If Defensive Fire had also pinned the squad in V4, it would not be possible to form a single contiguous chain of adjacent hexes at the end of the next Impulse, and the group would immediately cease movement at the end of the next Impulse (7.422). Because it is not possible to form a single contiguous chain of adjacent hexes, the CPVA player is free to move the remaining units in the group in the last Impulse without any IPM considerations.
7.4222 ENTRY: A Good Order CPVA Infantry unit is not required to use IPM during the Player Turn it enters the mapboard, although it may choose to do so. For purposes of 7.422, offboard units of an IPM Group are considered adjacent to other units of the group as if all units were onboard during the Player Turn they enter the mapboard. Should a gap (7.4221) occur during the turn of entry and the IPM Group does not meet the requirements of 7.422 at the end of the next Impulse, the entire group does not automatically cease movement. However, an onboard unit that is not part of the longest contiguous chain of adjacent hexes/Locations (player's choice if ≥ one such chain exists) ceases being part of the group and must end its MPh in its current Location. A unit still offboard may continue to move (as if it were part of the group), but must end its MPh in the first onboard hex it enters, unless it is now adjacent to another unit in the group, in which case it continues being part of the group.
7.4222 ENTRY EX: All units of this IPM Group enter the map from offboard for a cost of 2 MF (due to the Light Woods in 19Z10) during their first Impulse. Defensive Fire breaks both the 8-0 leader in AA10 and the 2-2-7 HS in BB10 and pins the 4-3-7 squad in CC10, after which they are no longer part of the group.
During the second Impulse, the remaining five units in the IPM Group move again. If they had been able to re-form into a contiguous group, they would have had to do so. Since that is not possible, they choose to move as shown by the blue arrows. If the group had started movement from onboard, all five units would then cease movement, because the group does not form a single contiguous chain of adjacent hexes at the end of the next Impulse after a gap occurred (7.4221). However, since this is their turn of entry not all units are required to cease movement. Only the 4-3-7 squads in Y9 and Z9 must end their MPh, because they are not part of the “longest contiguous chain of adjacent hexes” (7.4222) and thus are no longer part of the group. The other three units can continue moving as a group.
7.4223 EXIT: A unit in an IPM Group that leaves the mapboard during an Impulse in which other units of the same IPM Group remain onboard is assumed to be in its last entered onboard hex [EXC: Overstacking penalties (A5.11) are NA] throughout the MPh for the purpose of 7.422-.4221.
7.4224 BERSERK: If a unit in an IPM Group goes Berserk (A15.1), the groups movement is temporarily suspended after the current Impulse. After the Berserk unit has completed its charge (A15.43), the IMP Group's MPh resumes.
7.423 NON-IPM MOVEMENT: If at the start of its MPh a Good Order CPVA squad/HS wishes to move without using IPM it must pass a NTC [EXC: 7.4231]. This TC cannot trigger a Sniper (A14.1)/Booby Trap-(B28.9) attack, nor is it considered a ooncealment loss action (A12.141). An additional +1 DRM applies to this TC in night scenarios. See also 7.81. If it fails the NTC, it may move no more than one Location [EXC: Berserk; Straying] in that MPh, and must do so before any other units move.
7.423 NON-IPM MOVEMENT EX: The leader in 19W5 initiates an IPM Group consisting of the 4-(1)-7 squad (7.421), which moves off using one-squad Impulse movement via V4 towards V2. The leader can now neither participate in nor initiate another IPM Group (7.421), so the leader and 4-3-7 squad then move together via X4 towards Y3 (7.4231 bullet #2). The 3-3-7 squad may attempt a NTC to move normally, but if it fails may only move one Location (7.423); it can move one Location in any direction without the need to attempt the NTC (7.4231 bullet #1; although there is no real harm in failing); or it can designate W2 as its “target” hex (since it contains an in-LOS enemy MMC) and move towards that target hex (7.4231 bullet #13a).
7.4231 EXCEPTIONS: A Good Order CPVA squad/HS is exempt from the TC per 7.423 if any of the following apply:
• It moves ≤ one Location during its MPh;
• It spends its entire MPh moving in a combined stack with a leader;
• It mounts/loads onto any form of conveyance as the first MF expended during its MPh;
• It dismounts/unloads from any form of conveyance;
• It possesses ≥ one DC/FT;
• It is Fanatic (A10.3);
• It is Cloaked (E1.4);
• It enters a Tunnel (B8.6);
• It moves such that each new hex entered during its MPh contains an Entrenchment, Pillbox, or a Cave, or is a cave's Entrance Hex;
• At the start of its MPh, it designates a "target" hex. Any new hex entered during the MPh must decrease the range (in hexes) to the "target" hex and/or be adjacent to it (including exiting the mapboard; A26.23). Such a "target" hex must be in its LOS and either:
◦ b) contain a friendly conveyance it could mount/load-onto within three MF;
◦ c) be a VC hex (or contain a VC Location/building) (A26.1); or
◦ d) be a board-edge hex off of which it could exit without being considered eliminated (A26.221)
7.424 IPM AT NIGHT: CPVA Cloaking counters may participate in an IPM Group, but only if all participating units are Cloaked (E1.4). If a unit in an IPM Group loses Cloaking, all units in that IPM Group lose Cloaked status (eliminating Dummy Cloaking counters). The individual units are placed on board Concealed [EXC: unconcealed if they would otherwise lose Concealment]. See also 7.71.
7.4241 STRAYING: Only one Movement DR (E1.53) is made for the entire IPM Group. The E1.531 exceptions apply to an IPM Group if any of them apply to a participating leader and/or to ≥ 50% of the participating units. Should any participating unit in an IPM Group become TI (due to E1.53), all participating units in the group beoome TI. Only Good Order friendly units not part of the IPM Group are considered for purposes of E1.532, but once that applies to any participating unit, it applies to them all.
7.5 RECON UNITS:37 CPVA squads/HS may be designated by SSR as "Recon" units, and the following rules apply to such squads/HS:
• In addition to Deploying normally, a "Recon" squad may Deploy without a leader by passing a 1TC instead of a NTC (A1.31);
• A leader is not required in order to Recombine (A1.32);
• A "Recon" HS may not Recombine with a non-"Recon" HS;
• "Recon" squads/HS are not subject to Command & Control (7.4) restrictions;
• A "Recon" squad/HS that becomes Unarmed ceases to be a "Recon" unit.
7.6 HS INFANTRY OVR: An armed, non-berserk CPVA Infantry MMC, but at least one squad (including any SMC it is stacked with and moves with) may attempt to conduct an Infantry OVR vs a lone Known enemy HS provided the sum of the printed inherent FP (A1.21) of all participating units is ≥ that of the enemy HS; a broken enemy HS retains its printed, unbroken inherent FP value for this calculation. All rules for Infantry OVR (A4.15) apply unless specified otherwise. The enemy HS does not have the option of entering a new hex. Detection (A12.15) applies normally.
7.71 EARLY KW CPVA NIGHT:38 In scenarios set prior to 4/51, contrary to E1.31, a CPVA Infantry unit/stack or IPM Group (7.421) consisting of ≤ four MMC does not lose concealment when it uses Non-Assault Movement in a Location that is already Illuminated. Such units may retain concealment; however, they will not retain their Cloaked status (E1.31; 7.424) and are placed on board concealed instead (or eliminated if a Dummy Cloaking counter). They lose concealment normally if any of the following apply:
• The Location is within the Base NVR and LOS of a Good Order enemy ground unit; or
• A unit uses Hazardous Movement (A4.62); or
• A unit is carrying > its IPC (A4.42); or
• A unit expends MF for activities other than to enter the Location and/or to enter/exit an entrenchment in it; or
• Bugles (7.8) have been sounded this Player Turn.
7.8 BUGLES:39 CPVA may sound Bugles if specified by SSR. The CPVA player may sound Bugles at the start of any CPVA MPh with ≥ one Good Order CPVA leader on board (or set up offboard to enter; A2.51). The sounding of Bugles is the equivalent of a Gunflash being placed due to an attack vs a CPVA unit for the purpose of Jitter Fire (E1.55), Initial Use of Starshells/IR/Searchlights (E1.91; 10.5). The effects (7.81-.82) of Bugles apply for the remainder of the current Player Turn. Bugles may be sounded again in subsequent Player Turns. Bugles may be sounded in both daytime and night scenarios.
7.81 CPVA EFFECTS: During a Player Turn in which Bugles have been sounded, all CPVA squads/HS receive an additional -1 Non-IPM Movement TC DRM (7.423), and all CPVA units receive an additional +1 Concealment drm (A12.122).
7.82 UN EFFECTS: In a Player Turn when Bugles have been sounded, the UN Scenario Defenders best leader may attempt to gain Freedom of Movement per E1.21, with a -1 drm. In scenarios set in 10/50 through 3/51, the following apply to U.S./ROK/OUNC DEFENDERS in a Player Turn when Bugles have been sounded. In daytime scenarios and in night scenarios when a Movement DR is not initially necessary (E1.531), for each CPVA ground unit/stack wishing to move to a new hex in that MPh, the CPVA player makes a Straying DR at the start of that unit's/stack's MPh for the sole purpose of possible DEFENDER Jitter Fire; if a moving CPVA unit/stack subsequently becomes subject to a Movement DR (E1.53), Jitter Fire is NA for that DR. For Jitter Fire (E1.55) only, each U.S./ROK/OUNC DEFENDER unit/stack that is Stealthy (E.4; E1.6) is considered to be Normal, and each unit/stack that is Normal is considered to be Lax.
7.9 MISCELLANEOUS:40 Good Order CPVA Personnel are Stealthy (A11.17). CPVA Personnel have a Heat of Battle DRM of +1 and a Leader Creation drm of 0. CPVA Personnel treat all Heat of Battle "Surrender" results as "Berserk" instead, unless they are ADJACENT to a Good Order UN Infantry unit. CPVA units may neither use Riders (D6.2) [EXC: Cavalry; motorcyclists] nor Armored Assault (D9.31). A UN unit Interrogating (E2) a CPVA prisoner must add an additional +1 DRM to any Interrogation DR. Civilian Interrogation (E2.4) is always in effect for the CPVA. Unless specified otherwise by SSR, the CPVA are in a Friendly country.
7.91 WEAPONS USE: CPVA Personnel may use Russian/Japanese/G.M.D. SW/Guns/vehicles without Captured Use penalties (A21.11-.12). A CPVA MMG/HMG/LtMtr/BAZ/RCL being fired by a CPVA squad/HS has its B#/X# and Multiple ROF lowered by one (A.11 applies). However, these SW are not considered crewed weapons for Captured Use penalties (A21.13). A CPVA 1st Line MMC that starts a scenario possessing a DC/PT (and/or is designated/purchased as an Assault Engineer [H1.22]) may use FT and DC as if they were Elite (A22.3; A23.1). A 1st Line HS created from such a squad also retains this ability, which it loses if it recombines [EXC: two Assault Engineer HS recombining].
7.92 ENTRENCHING:41 CPVA units are entitled to a -1 DRM when entrenching. This DRM does not apply to prisoners of any nationality.
7.93 ORDNANCE & OBA: CPVA vehicles/ordnance [EXC: MG] use red To Hit Numbers. CPVA OBA is available beginning 6/51 and uses a Draw Pile (C1.211) of seven black and three red chits if the scenario is set in 6/51 through 9/52, and seven black and two red thereafter, and achieves Accuracy (C1.3) on a Final dr of ≤ 1.
7.95 CONCEALMENT:42 CPVA Infantry receive a -1 drm to their Concealment dr (A12.122). In addition to gaining concealment per A12.122, CPVA Infantry in Concealment Terrain may also attempt to gain concealment via a Concealment dr even if in LOS of unbroken enemy ground unit(s), provided all such enemy units would incur a Hindrance DRM of at least +2 during a hypothetical attack vs the CPVA Infantry.
7.96 HIP: The CPVA player in a daytime scenario may always use HIP for s 10% (FRU) of the MMC squad-equivalents (A5.5) in his onboard-setup OB and any SMC/SW that set(s) up stacked with them. In a night scenario the CPVA player may always use HIP for ≤ 25% of his MMC squad-equivalents (including crews) that set up onboard, even if he is not the Scenario Defender - and if he is the Scenario Defender he also receives Dummy counters equal to the number of MMC squad-equivalents in his OB; otherwise, E1.2 applies unchanged. These HIP capabilities are in addition to HIP granted for any other reason(s) [EXC: E1.2]. In daytime scenarios, E1.16 applies to CPVA Foxholes/Sangars set up in Concealment Terrain.
7.97 CC: Whenever ≥ one unbroken CPVA Infantry/Cavalry MELEE unit is the ATTACKER in CC/Melee or Ambushes the enemy in CC, that CC/Melee automatically becomes Hand-to-Hand (J2.31) unless every such CPVA unit participating in it was Ambushed in that phase and/or is Withdrawing/pinned. However, Hand-to-Hand CC can never he used by/vs any vehicle(s)/PRC/pillbox-occupant(s). Each CPVA Hand-to-Hand CC attack receives an extra -1 DRM unless every CPVA Infantry/Cavalry unit participating in that attack is pinned/Unarmed. A Reduced-Strength CPVA unit retains its Full-Strength CCV.
7.98 BATTLEFIELD INTEGRITY: Step Reduction from Full-Strength to Reduced-Strength never affects the current CPVA Casualty Tally. A Full- or Reduced-Strength infantry-crew that for any reason is exchanged for a vehicle-Crew is treated for Casualty Tally purposes like a squad being Reduced to a HS (A16.11).
7.99 VP: The opponent does not gain Casualty VP when a CPVA Full-Strength squad or infantry-crew is flipped over to its Reduced-Strength side, nor when a Reduced-Strength infantry-crew is exchanged for a broken vehicle-crew.